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46Elimination or Reduction of Baggage Recheck for Arriving International Passengers threats (e.g., customs, agriculture, immigration), there could be variability in risk mitigation from site to site based on local conditions. A more detailed list of criteria is outlined in Appendix F. See Appendix G for the results of the peer review session ratings of each of the aforementioned alternative procedures. Testing Process and Results Based on the high-level evaluation model, a series of tests was defined to identify the potential for eliminating or reducing the need for baggage recheck: Test 1: Process flows were tracked using RFID tags to determine the timing of bags and pas- sengers in order to assess air carrier, airport, and CBP process timing (DFW). Test 2: The proposed solution for CBP review of TSA X-ray images as a risk mitigation solu- tion was examined (ATL and TSA Transportation Systems Integration Facility). Test 3: The potential expansion of international-to-international baggage recheck elimina- tion at a facility (SEA) was reviewed. Test 4: The market demand benefits of baggage recheck elimination was modeled based on minimum connection time reduction (ATL). Test 5: The results were modeled in a discrete simulation program. Test 1: Radio Frequency Identification Passenger and Bag Timing The first test was driven by a major concern shared by stakeholders during the original site visits. If baggage recheck was eliminated and bags were not needed in the FIS area, could there be situations where passengers would nevertheless be delayed, reducing the time savings benefits of eliminating baggage recheck? RFID technology was selected to enable automatic collection of large amounts of process tim- ing data. The test airport (DFW) already had an international-to-international program with baggage recheck eliminated. As a result, there was a good control timing to compare with a sector of traffic (international-to-domestic connections) that had baggage recheck. Test Objectives The purpose of the test was to characterize the timing for both bags and passengers (via a carry-on item) in order to quantitatively test the operational impact under real airport condi- tions and enable a comparison of current bag program processes versus potential alternative processes in order to estimate the order-of-magnitude time savings for alternative steps. The objectives of the carry-on process time testing, conducted in conjunction with the airline RFID baggage study, were as follows: Characterization of baggage reclaim process timing (i.e., does the passenger wait for bags at the carousel or vice versa? How frequently does this occur?) Comparison of baggage recheck process times (i.e., current international-to-domestic con- nections) against those of the international-to-international program Establishment of the order-of-magnitude time savings for eliminating baggage recheck Methodology Working closely with the airline, CBP, and the airport, the study team installed a series of RFID tag readers throughout the arrivals process to record timing data at each step. Tags affixed

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Testing and Evaluating Potential Solutions 47 to carry-on bags and checked bags enabled the mapping of flows on select flight segments. For more details on the methodology, see Appendix E. Key Results For passenger timing from flight arrival to exit from the FIS area, a significant reduction in time occurred as a result of baggage recheck elimination. Although bags were often ready to be picked up by passengers at the baggage claim carousel, connecting passengers needed addi- tional time to locate baggage carts, find/identify their bags, and exit the FIS area. This delay is exacerbated during peak periods with queues forming at the CBP Egress Point. International- to-international passengers using baggage recheck elimination, and other passengers with no bags, could proceed directly from CBP Primary to the Egress Point and would typically avoid the congestion caused by passengers leaving the FIS area with bags. Key results were as follows: The net result was an average time savings of 26 minutes for passengers with baggage recheck elimination (Figure 23). Transfer bags were available, on average, 34 minutes earlier for sortation for the next flight. Those passengers with baggage recheck eliminated stayed within the FIS area for an average of about 34 minutes and no longer than 80 minutes. By comparison, the range for passengers without baggage recheck elimination was 60 minutes, with some passengers staying within the FIS area well over 120 minutes. While the study team found positive results for time savings for baggage recheck elimination, it also noted that there were some aspects of passenger processing that limited some of the full benefits: Without baggage recheck elimination, the study team found that 65 percent of bags were ready to be picked up by passengers at the claim carousel and remained on the carousel for 11 minutes, 19 seconds on average. The 35 percent of passengers who had to wait for their bags to appear waited on average for 12 minutes, 45 seconds. Baggage recheck elimination would completely remove the 12-minute, 45-second average wait for bags. However, the study team found the 11-minute, 19-second average wait by bags for passengers to be a function of the overall wait time for CBP Primary Processing, which can vary by time of day and peak periods found at international arrivals. For more information on this study site, see Appendix E. Figure 23. Time savings from baggage recheck elimination.