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52Elimination or Reduction of Baggage Recheck for Arriving International Passengers Figure 26. Minimum connection time savings of 15 minutes results in 11 percent more connecting network possibilities. Key results were as follows: A 15-minute reduction in minimum connection times at ATL (i.e., 65 minutes for Delta and 75 minutes for other airlines) yields an 11 percent increase in potential seat connections for passengers (see Figure 26). A 30-minute reduction in connection times would gain a 25 percent increase in connection possibilities. Where current minimum connection times are high, a greater reduction in MCT is possible and would result in relatively larger gains for air carriers, whereas airports with low minimum connec- tion times would only allow for minor reductions in MCT and thus smaller benefits to airlines. Test 5: Simulation Modeling Discrete event simulation models are useful for evaluating scenarios in which the results are driven by time-dependent interactions of events. A simulation has the ability to run a number of scenarios in which the model can accept input parameters and assumptions to predict realistic outcomes and provide a virtual test environment. The role of the simulation is to support the conclusions obtained from the evaluation of the seven alternative procedures. Test Objectives The objective was to develop an environment to test a number of scenarios and parameters related to eliminating or reducing baggage recheck. Specifically, the model is able to test scenarios in which international-to-international baggage recheck is eliminated, international-to-domestic baggage recheck is eliminated, an additional bag process is implemented, or a combination of these scenarios. Methodology The methodology was as follows: (1) Develop a process-oriented simulation model that can accept flight arrival schedules (2) Input parameters for process times, percentages for passenger characteristics, etc. (3) Run a number of scenarios (4) Have a visual interactive interface (5) Provide quantitative results of each simulation run The base model was developed using the simulation software SIMUL8. The software primarily simulates processes at a high level and is not intended as a three-dimensional (3-D) emulation or physical and spatial modeling system. Key Results The resultant change in timing between scenarios tested provides useful information for the relative impact of implementing connections programs and validates alternative procedures. On

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Testing and Evaluating Potential Solutions 53 an operational basis, eliminating baggage recheck for both international and domestic connections decreases the time benefits of only eliminating baggage recheck for international connections. This decrease is due to the bags of both connection types being prioritized above those of terminating passengers. With only a small percentage of bags typically making an international-to-international connection, the timing benefits are quite significant. With the majority of bags getting higher prior- ity, the connecting bags essentially receive the same priority and all connecting bags are slowed as a result. The key results of Test 5 are as follows: International-to-international baggage transfer generates moderate benefits of improving capacity for the entire system, as checked bags that would normally be present in the reclaim carousel in FIS are instead directed to the onward connecting flight. International-to-domestic baggage recheck elimination would provide comparable benefits with neither bags nor passengers going to baggage claim. Benefits would accrue to terminating passengers as well in terms of less congestion at the inbound FIS carousel, although bags would arrive slightly later to the claim carousel due to their relative de-prioritization. Time is available for additional bag processes, if required (e.g., special screening for transfer bags or CBP hold): The extra time available for additional bag processes is approximately 10 minutes (see Figure 27). After 15 minutes, the system benefits tend to decay beyond the point at which MCT reduc- tion objectives would not be met. While the simulation model predicted passenger and bag times under each scenario, the resul- tant times themselves are specific to a particular facility and its configuration. When calibrated for a particular airport, the simulation is useful for quantification of the time benefit (for bags and passengers) achieved by eliminating baggage recheck and identification of the constraining process (bag or passenger). On an infrastructure and facilities design basis, significant constraints on the system appeared at the ramp level for connecting bags without recheck requirements that are proceeding directly to bag screening. A larger in-feed conveyor or dedicated buffer space is required to accommo- date the significantly higher volumes of bags. Note that the model does not consider the space requirements for temporary holding in case bags need to be recalled. The storage area might be used before bag rescreening or after rescreening and after bag sortation. Figure 27. Time limitations shown in simulation of 30 minutes for baggage processes at ramp level.