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Background 7 The approach to this research also examines risk management solutions and incremental ben- efits to airports and airlines. New technologies, processes, and capabilities could yield facilitation and security benefits, provided they can be met within the space and time constraints inside the airport environment. Improving the speed of passenger processing is an ongoing trend within the airport and air- line market. As previously indicated, passengers prefer to handle their baggage as little as possible over the duration of a trip. Introducing alternative approaches or new technology to enhance a baggage bypass system for passengers not only benefits the user, it also benefits the air carriers and the airports that serve them. The air carriers could benefit from a reduction in minimum connect times, which currently range from 60 to 90 minutes at various U.S. airports, and/or a solution that would provide greater consistency in meeting existing times. A reduction in mini- mum connect times and greater reliability in airline schedule performance allows a hub to dra- matically increase connecting possibilities and allow routing options to be selected by consumers based on a greater range of time/pricing options. The benefits for airports can be realized through cost savings in space allocation, as well as improvements in global hub strategies for major air carriers. The elimination of baggage recheck will allow air carriers to strengthen their hubs at key international airports that may provide this service, thus increasing passenger volumes, which in turn leads to increased revenues for airports. Cost-Effective Risk-Based Solutions Needed At the root of this study is an examination of the trade-off between processes, risk manage- ment, and the growing volume of passengers and checked bags. Due to key terrorist events (e.g., September 11, 2001, and December 25, 2009) and real and perceived threats, passengers and their baggage arriving at air ports of entry continue to face a disproportionate degree of scrutiny. For example, while 180,000 passengers per day enter at international airports, 300,000 passen- gers per day flow through land border checkpoints to the United States (4)--and only a small minority of bags in passenger vehicle trunks are ever "seen" by CBP. Risk management of international arrivals continues to challenge CBP and other agencies respon- sible for dealing with the evolving threats facing the United States and the aviation industry. An emerging theme is the need to economize existing resources to better work toward a system of col- laborative risk management. This means that agencies such as the Transportation Security Admin- istration (TSA) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and industry participants must work collaboratively. Ultimately, a system aimed at cost-effective solutions will maximize targeting, screening, and inspection within a finite period of time. CBP and TSA have increased their degree of cooperation, with greater integration and collaboration of programs for international travelers: To counter the threat of terrorism and secure our borders, CBP relies on a balanced mix of professional law enforcement personnel, advanced technologies and fully modernized facilities and infrastructure both at and between the ports of entry. CBP officers utilize advanced targeting, screening and inspec- tion technologies to quickly identify persons or cargo that warrant additional scrutiny without unduly impeding the traveling public or commerce. CBP Commissioner Bersin and TSA Administrator Pistole Statement November 2010 The following issues are a small selection that CBP faces at international airports of all sizes in the United States: In May 2011, CBP seized nearly 90 pounds of cooked Ethiopian sheep meat at a major inter- national hub.