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Glossary Advanced Spectroscopic An advanced nuclear screening portal system designed to Portal (ASP) identify material emitting certain quantities of radiation. Used to aid interdiction of radiological/nuclear threats. Aeronautical RevenueRevenue generated from aviation-related movements such as airfield area use and aircraft parking charges. Airport Technical Design Developed by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Standards (ATDS) to reflect policy, procedures, and facility sizing parameters for the design and construction of Federal Inspection Ser- vice (FIS) facilities at airports. Automated Targeting An enforcement and decision support tool that is the System (ATS) cornerstone for all CBP targeting efforts. CBP uses ATS to improve the collection, use, analysis, and dissemination of information that is gathered for the primary purpose of targeting, identifying, and preventing potential terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States. Baggage Handling SystemsA type of conveyor system installed in airports that trans- ports checked luggage to/from ticket counters, arriving airplanes, baggage screening, and outbound departure gates. Baggage Make-up AreaThe area within the baggage handling system where bags are sorted for an outbound flight. Baggage RecheckFor passengers who have just arrived from an international flight and are connecting to other flights, major interna- tional airports have "baggage recheck" facilities to allow passengers to drop off bags for their next flight. Airlines will typically have customer service agents to provide services such as retagging and boarding pass issuance. Baggage ScreeningThe process to screen checked baggage for aviation security purposes to intercept prohibited items. This screening is accomplished primarily through the use of X-ray imaging and may include other technologies or physical search. Baggage Source Message (BSM)A data packet that contains the flight details and passenger information that enables an automated baggage handling system to sort a bag automatically once it has scanned the bar code on the carrier tag. 74

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Glossary 75 Baggage Weight and Imaging System installed at select Preclearance Airports that captures System the image and weight of each checked bag that is available for a CBP officer to view when processing a passenger. BiometricsThe measurement and recording of the physical characteris- tics of an individual for use in subsequent personal identifi- cation (e.g., fingerprint, iris, facial topography). Border Facilitation ProgramsPrograms and/or processes that are designed to provide travelers or goods with a simplified experience of the border inspection process at time of entry or exit from a country. CBP Egress PointThe traveler exit point from the Federal Inspection Services area where travelers typically submit their CBP declaration cards. CBP Primary ProcessingThe primary inspection of individuals by CBP officers who present themselves for entrance to the United States within the FIS area. Officers have the discretion to permit entry or refer individuals for further inspection/Secondary Processing. CBP Secondary ProcessingAfter CBP Primary Processing, the CBP officer has the dis- cretion to refer an individual or family for a more complete inspection before determining their eligibility to enter the United States. An individual may also be referred at random for Secondary Processing. Carry-on Items or BaggagePersonal items or baggage that remain with a traveler throughout his/her journey including during the flight. Checked BaggageItems of baggage delivered to an airline for transportation in the hold (or belly) of an aircraft, which means it is inaccessible to the passenger during the flight. Connecting Bag ProcessThe defined process that a passenger and/or airlines per- form to ensure the passenger's checked baggage is retrieved from an incoming flight and transported to the outbound flight. Connecting FlightThe second (or greater) flight segment of a traveler's itinerary that are with the same airline, or with multiple airlines operating under a commercial agreement (e.g., code-share). Customs and Border A component of the Department of Homeland Security Protection (CBP) "with a priority mission of keeping terrorists and their weapons out of the United States. It also has a responsibility for securing and facilitating trade and travel while enforcing hundreds of U.S. regulations, including immigration and drug laws." DB1B O&D DatabaseThe Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) is a 10% sample of airline tickets from reporting carriers col- lected by the Office of Airline Information of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Data includes origin, destination

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76 Elimination or Reduction of Baggage Recheck for Arriving International Passengers and other itinerary details of passengers transported. This database is used to determine air traffic patterns, air carrier market shares, and passenger flows. Department of Homeland The department that is charged with the responsibility "to Security (DHS) ensure a homeland that is safe, secure, and resilient against terrorism and other hazards where American interests, aspirations, and way of life can thrive." DHS has two agen- cies relevant to this study: Transportation Security Admin- istration and Customs and Border Protection. Destination PassengerA traveler who has reached the final airport of his/her flight itinerary. Domestic FlightA flight between two airports located within the same country. Federal Inspection Area operated by CBP within which it (and other government Services (FIS) departments) has authority to search all persons and goods entering the country. Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)A unit used to measure employed persons or students in a way that makes them comparable, although they may work or study a different number of hours per week. An FTE of 1.0 means that the person is equivalent to a full-time worker; while an FTE of 0.5 signals that the worker is employed only half-time. Global EntryGlobal Entry is a Customs and Border Protection program that allows expedited clearance for pre-approved, low-risk travelers upon arrival in the United States. As of the writing of the report it is a pilot program. Induction PointThe location at which a checked bag enters into an airport's baggage handling system. International Air Transport A three-letter code used to identify many airports around the Association (IATA) world (e.g., JFK = John F. Kennedy International Airport), Airport Code defined by the IATA. For example, airport codes are printed on baggage tags at airport check-in desks in order to identify the specific flight routing of checked bags. International FlightA flight that originates in one country and is destined for an airport in a different country. Minimum Connection The amount of time, agreed between airlines and airport Time (MCT) authorities, that is considered sufficient for a passenger to make a connection between an arriving flight and a depart- ing flight. MultiplexingA method by which multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. This method allows X-ray scanners to have images reviewed in real time from a geographically separate location.

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Glossary 77 NEXUSNEXUS is designed to expedite the border clearance pro- cess for low-risk, pre-approved travelers into Canada and the United States. The program is operated jointly by the Canada Border Services Agency and Customs and Border Protection. Non-aeronautical RevenueRevenue generated from non-aeronautical sources such as land leases or rental payments from retail outlets within air- port terminals. Non-interlined ConnectionsTwo or more flight segments within a traveler's itinerary with multiple air carriers that are not operating under a commercial agreement. Official Airline Guide (OAG)Aviation information and analytical services sourced from its proprietary airline schedules, flight status, fleet, mainte- nance & repair overhaul, and cargo logistics databases. OAG is best known for its airline schedules database that holds future and historical flight details for more than 1,000 airlines and over 4,000 airports. Originating PassengerA passenger whose first flight segment begins at that airport. Passenger ScreeningScreening performed to review passengers and their carry- on items for potential threats to commercial aviation. This screening is accomplished primarily through the use of walk-through metal detectors, X-ray imaging, explosive trace detection, and physical search. People Mover SystemAn automated system (e.g., train) used to move passengers from one terminal to another or within a terminal in an expedited manner. Such systems may operate within the public side and/or the airside/secure areas of the airport. Port of EntryThe first location at which a person presents him/herself for entry into a country. Preclearance AirportsPreclearance allows passengers arriving on international flights to obtain advance approval to enter the United States from established locations in airports outside the country. Quality Service Index (QSI)The QSI forecasting tool allows airports to perform route forecasts for a single new route with up to three daily roundtrips. The tool allows the user to input many vari- ables that go into this calculation, such as airline, flight timings, aircraft type, connection windows, code shares, and traffic stimulation. The output provides an overview of the different itineraries of passengers that take the pro- posed flight, the fares they will pay, and the incremental traffic and revenue for the airline. Radio Frequency Identification A technology that uses radio waves to transfer data from an (RFID) electronic tag, called RFID tag or label, which is attached to an object, through to a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object. Some RFID tags can be read from several feet away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.

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78 Elimination or Reduction of Baggage Recheck for Arriving International Passengers Ramp-Level TransfersThe movement of checked baggage from an arriving air- plane to a departing airplane without it leaving the air-field tarmac. Risk ManagementThe identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks followed by a coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events. Schedule IntegrityThe consistency or reliability of an airline's ability to perform within the defined schedule of its operations (e.g., arrival time, departing time). Self-Connecting PassengersA flight journey with a connection in which the traveler holds two separate itineraries. SimulationA computer-generated model of a set of processes or events that can be used for scenario testing. Swing GateAn aircraft gate that can be used for flights originating from or departing to different sectors (i.e., domestic or interna- tional), based on the ability to segregate access to only passengers of that sector. T-100 DatabaseA monthly report of domestic and international airline market and segment data for U.S. air carriers that is col- lected by the Department of Transportation. In addition, foreign carriers that have at least one point of service in the United States or one of its territories report monthly air car- rier traffic information using Form T-100. Terminating AirportThe airport at which a traveler finishes his/her air travel journey. Transfer BaggageBaggage that is to be transferred from an arriving airplane to a departing airplane based on the passenger's flight itinerary. Transportation Security An agency of the Department of Homeland Security that Administration (TSA) "protects the Nation's transportation systems to ensure freedom of movement for people and commerce." TSA X-Ray Screening MatrixThe area within a U.S. airport's baggage system where TSA screens bags using X-ray machines or other equipment. X-Ray AlgorithmsA defined set of rules and instructions that the X-ray unit applies when screening bags that detects the presence, or potential presence, of prohibited items.