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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 61 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Elimination or Reduction of Baggage Recheck for Arriving International Passengers
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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2012 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding Chair: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority Vice Chair: Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern (retired) Corporation, Norfolk, VA Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board VICE CHAIR Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY William A.V. Clark, Professor of Geography and Professor of Statistics, Department of Geography, MEMBERS University of California, Los Angeles James Crites Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh DallasFort Worth International Airport James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Richard de Neufville Paula J. C. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Massachusetts Institute of Technology Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Kevin C. Dolliole Chris T. Hendrickson, Duquesne Light Professor of Engineering, Carnegie-Mellon University, Unison Consulting Pittsburgh, PA John K. Duval Adib K. Kanafani, Professor of the Graduate School, University of California, Berkeley Austin Commercial, LP Gary P. LaGrange, President and CEO, Port of New Orleans, LA Kitty Freidheim Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Freidheim Consulting Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Steve Grossman Jacksonville Aviation Authority Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State DOT, Albany Tom Jensen Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington National Safe Skies Alliance Neil J. Pedersen, Consultant, Silver Spring, MD Catherine M. Lang Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Federal Aviation Administration Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Gina Marie Lindsey Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Los Angeles World Airports David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Carolyn Motz Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, Airport Design Consultants, Inc. West Lafayette, IN Richard Tucker Huntsville International Airport Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute EX OFFICIO MEMBERS of Transportation Studies; and Acting Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Paula P. Hochstetler Airport Consultants Council Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI Sabrina Johnson C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard Marchi EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Airports Council International--North America Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Laura McKee Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Air Transport Association of America LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Interior, Washington, DC Melissa Sabatine John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, American Association of Airport Executives Washington, DC Robert E. Skinner, Jr. John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Transportation Research Board Officials, Washington, DC Michael P. Huerta, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY David T. Matsuda, Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Christopher W. Jenks Michael P. Melaniphy, President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA Gregory D. Winfree, Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of July 2011. *Membership as of February 2012.
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A I R P O R T c oop e rati v e R e s e ar c h P ro g ra m ACRP Report 61 Elimination or Reduction of Baggage Recheck for Arriving International Passengers Solomon Wong Stanley Tse Aaron Beeson Henry Ristic Howard Mann InterVISTAS Consulting Group Bethesda, MD Subscriber Categories Aviation · Security and Emergencies Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Transportation Research Board Washington, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org
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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRPREPORT 61 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans Project 10-09 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-21395-0 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon Library of Congress Control Number 2012932768 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most © 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera COPYRIGHT Information tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the un sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries derstanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Gov The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision erning Board of the National Research Council. 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State ers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Re Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport search Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. they are considered essential to the object of the report. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper Airport cooperative research program ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
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cooperative Research programs CRP STAFF for ACRP Report 61 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Tiana Barnes, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Editor ACRP PROJECT 10-09 Panel Field of Operations Stephen D. Van Beek, LeighFisher, Washington, DC (Chair) Timothy L. Anderson, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN David J. Bourgon, McCarran International Airport, Las Vegas, NV Hans Hauck, American Airlines, Fort Worth, TX Theodore S. Kitchens, Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport, Newport News, VA Peter Mandle, LeighFisher, Burlingame, CA Christopher Teem, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Airport Technology, Seattle, WA Jay A. Turney, Delta Air Lines, Inc., Atlanta, GA Paul Lo, FAA Liaison Christopher R. Bidwell, Airports Council InternationalNorth America Liaison Richard Marchi, Airports Council InternationalNorth America Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison author ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 10-09 by InterVISTAS-ga2 Consult ing (hereafter referred to as "InterVISTAS Consulting Group") of Bethesda, Maryland. InterVISTAS Consulting Group authored this report with the support of CAGE Inc., Transecure, and Airline Capital Associates. Solomon Wong was the Principal Investigator, with primary project researchers Stanley Tse, Aaron Beeson, Henry Ristic, and Howard Mann. Other researchers from InterVISTAS Consulting Group include George Novak, Sam Sugita, Eddy Bordignon, Mike Morstein, Alex Welch, and Janet Labuda. Investigators from partner organizations are Art Kosatka, Howard Scheffler, Susan Prediger (while employed by CAGE Inc.), Donald Schenk, Frank Rosenburg, and David Z. Plavin.
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foreword By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 61: Elimination or Reduction of Baggage Recheck for Arriving International Passengers (1) identifies potential alternative procedures that could be implemented to reduce or eliminate the need for the recheck of baggage for arriving international passengers at U.S. airports; (2) describes in detail the benefits and costs associated with these alternative procedures to airports, airlines, and federal agencies; and (3) compares potential alternative procedures with current practices. This report will assist airports, airlines, and other stake holders in examining policies, processes, and other drivers behind baggage recheck facilities that could lead to improved connections. International passengers arriving in the United States and connecting to another des tination must collect their baggage within a U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) facility. CBP may monitor or question passengers with respect to various issues relating to their trip purpose and duration and potentially refer them to Secondary Processing for additional baggage inspection. In reality, the large majority of passengers are cleared by CBP without Secondary Processing; however, all connecting bags must be handled by airlines multiple times. If the baggage for these passengers could be quickly identified and retrieved at the request of federal officials, other passengers would be able to continue their journey unimpeded through the terminal without having to wait for and recheck their baggage. If this streamlining were possible, there could be a potential for improving operations with cost savings. This report was developed from the research conducted for ACRP Project 10-09 by InterVISTAS Consulting Group. The report includes case studies conducted at a variety of international airport arrival facilities that represent a cross section of terminal facilities, airline alliances, and operating characteristics. Also contained are appendices that pro vide additional information including an inventory of current recheck procedures and an evaluation of alternative procedures as well as industry stakeholder feedback.
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Contents 1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Background 5 Context 5 What Mandates Baggage Recheck? 6 Increasing Pressures 7 Cost-Effective Risk-Based Solutions Needed 8 Differentiating Between "Eliminate" and "Reduce" 8 Research Approach 10 Chapter 2 Current Context for Baggage Recheck 10 International Arrivals Connection Market 11 Process Flows for Terminating and Connecting Passengers 16 Chapter 3 Airport Case Studies 16 Case Study 1: Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport 22 Case Study 2: HartsfieldJackson Atlanta International Airport 28 Case Study 3: San Francisco International Airport 34 Case Study 4: Seattle-Tacoma International Airport 37 Chapter 4 Testing and Evaluating Potential Solutions 37 Trends in Border Risk Management Relevant to This Study 37 Activities Before a Flight Takes Off from a Foreign Airport 38 Processes Immediately upon Arrival to a U.S. Airport 38 Other Measures Undertaken Prior to the Next Flight 38 Potential Solutions 38 Alternative Procedure 1: Exemption of Checked Baggage from FIS 39 Alternative Procedure 2: Alternative Procedure 1 + New Airline/Airport Processes on Arrival 40 Alternative Procedure 3: Alternative Procedure 1 + New CBP Processes on Arrival 41 Alternative Procedure 4: Enhanced Pre-departure Information 42 Alternative Procedure 5: Information Sharing with TSA Programs 43 Alternative Procedure 6: Leveraging Other DHS Programs 44 Alternative Procedure 7: Door-to-Door Baggage Service 45 High-Level Evaluation Model 45 Market Demand 45 Airlines 45 Airports 45 CBP Risk Management 46 Testing Process and Results 46 Test 1: Radio Frequency Identification Passenger and Bag Timing 48 Test 2: Information Sharing Between TSA and CBP on Connecting Bags
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49 Test 3: Expansion of International-to-International Recheck Reduction Process 50 Test 4: Minimum Connection Time Modeling 52 Test 5: Simulation Modeling 54 Chapter 5 Findings 54 Stakeholder Analysis 54 Generic Impact Analysis 57 Solutions 63 Evaluation Results 67 Chapter 6 Conclusions 68 Applying Research to Practice 69 Challenges 69 A Path for Improvement 70 Potential Additional Actions 71 Notes and References 72 List of Abbreviations and Acronyms 74 Glossary A-1 Appendix A Connecting Traffic Analysis (2008) B-1 Appendix B Airport Profiles C-1 Appendix C Inventory of Current Recheck Procedures D-1 Appendix DPrimer on Airport Processes and Border Risk Management E-1 Appendix E Technical Memorandum on Testing F-1 Appendix F Evaluation of Alternative Procedures G-1 Appendix G Industry Stakeholder Feedback Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.