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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 63 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Measurement of Gaseous HAP Emissions from Idling Aircraft as a Function of Engine and Ambient Conditions

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2012 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding Chair: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority Vice Chair: Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern (retired) Corporation, Norfolk, VA Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board VICE CHAIR Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY William A.V. Clark, Professor of Geography and Professor of Statistics, Department of Geography, MEMBERS University of California, Los Angeles James Crites Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh DallasFort Worth International Airport James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Richard de Neufville Paula J. C. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Massachusetts Institute of Technology Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Kevin C. Dolliole Chris T. Hendrickson, Duquesne Light Professor of Engineering, Carnegie-Mellon University, Unison Consulting Pittsburgh, PA John K. Duval Adib K. Kanafani, Professor of the Graduate School, University of California, Berkeley Austin Commercial, LP Gary P. LaGrange, President and CEO, Port of New Orleans, LA Kitty Freidheim Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Freidheim Consulting Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Steve Grossman Jacksonville Aviation Authority Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State DOT, Albany Kelly Johnson Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport Authority Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Catherine M. Lang Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Federal Aviation Administration Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Gina Marie Lindsey David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Los Angeles World Airports Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, Carolyn Motz West Lafayette, IN Airport Design Consultants, Inc. Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Richard Tucker Huntsville International Airport Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Acting Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI Paula P. Hochstetler Airport Consultants Council C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Sabrina Johnson U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Richard Marchi Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Airports Council International--North America Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Laura McKee LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Airlines for America Interior, Washington, DC Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Melissa Sabatine Washington, DC American Association of Airport Executives John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Officials, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Michael P. Huerta, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT David T. Matsuda, Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY Michael P. Melaniphy, President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Christopher W. Jenks Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA Gregory D. Winfree, Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of March 2012. *Membership as of March 2012.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 63 Measurement of Gaseous HAP Emissions from Idling Aircraft as a Function of Engine and Ambient Conditions Scott Herndon Ezra Wood Jon Franklin Richard Miake-Lye Aerodyne Research, Inc. Billerica, MA W. Berk Knighton Montana State University Bozeman, MT Mark Babb Southwest Airlines Dallas, TX Alex Nakahara Tom Reynolds Hamsa Balakrishnan Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA Subscriber Categories Aviation Energy Environment Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRPREPORT 63 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans Project 02-03A portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-21401-8 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon Library of Congress Control Number 2012935705 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera COPYRIGHT INFORMATION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. they are considered essential to the object of the report. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the Published reports of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 63 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lawrence D. Goldstein, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Acrp Project 02-03A Panel Field of Environment Renee L. Dowlin, Portland (OR) International Airport (Chair) Robert A. Arnott, Strategic Environmental Analysis, LLC, Greenwood Village, CO Steven L. Baughcum, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Seattle, WA Willard J. Dodds, GE Aviation, McMinnville, OR Brenda L. Enos, Massachusetts Port Authority, East Boston, MA Robert P. Howard, Arnold Air Force Base, TN Eileen A. Murphy, Rutgers, The State University of NJ Robert P. Newman, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Sparks, MD Saadat Syed, Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT Darcy C.Z. Zarubiak, Leigh Fisher, Dallas, TX Mohan Gupta, FAA Liaison Nancy N. Young, Airlines for America (A4A) Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS John Kinsey, United States Environmental Protection Agency. Art Kaucher, John Dayton, Tammy Kenney, Doug Rings, Phil Bursczak, and Elaine Karnes, Southwest Airlines. Roger Petersen and Harold Roehrich, United Air Lines Engineering Operations Center. Matthew Marich, Ray Hoffelt, and Aaron Frame, Chicago Department of Aviation. Albert Presto and Allen Robinson, Carnegie Mellon University. David Lewis, Connecticut College. Matthew DeWitt, University of Dayton Research Institute. Elena de la Rosa Blanca and Jim Hileman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prem Lobo, Stephen Achterberg, and Phillip Whitefield, Missouri University of Science and Technology. Robert Howard, Arnold Engineering Development Center. Williard Dodds and Russel Arey, GE Aviation. Steven Baughcum and Douglas Dubois, The Boeing Company. Luke Ziemba, NASA Langley. Zhenhong Yu, Michael Timko, Jay Peck, and Chuck Kolb, Aerodyne Research, Inc.

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FOREWORD By Lawrence D. Goldstein Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 63 presents the output of a comprehensive emissions test program designed to measure gaseous Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) from in-production jet engines oper ating at a range of idle settings and ambient temperatures. The measurement program addressed two primary concerns: total hydrocarbons and speciated hydrocarbons, includ ing HAPs, within the exhaust plume in reasonable proximity of the engine nozzle to capture emissions prior to condensation of volatile gasses; and emissions at a downstream location where the plume has cooled to near-ambient temperatures. The measurement program used commercial aircraft equipped with General Electric CFM56 wing-mounted engines, conducted during three separate campaigns at three different airports to evaluate the effects of change in environmental conditions as well as varying idle speeds. Although the data is attributed to and is defined by this particular engine, additional complementary data has been used to develop an estimation tool using measured data trends as a function of ambi ent temperature and fuel delivery rates. Interest in this research emerged as the result of a recognized need, expressed by gov ernment agency and community groups, for more definitive information about emissions from aircraft and other airport-related sources. An important component of airport-related emissions, addressed by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and state-level environmental programs, is Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Unlike criteria air pollutants (particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead), information on the emission, transformation, and transport of aviation-related HAPs has historically been limited. With a limited understanding of aviation HAP emis sions, airport operators have neither been able to develop accurate inventories nor provide effective guidance to state and local constituencies. This research was envisioned as one of a series of studies undertaken or to be undertaken to address the broader question of measur ing emissions from aircraft and other equipment operating at airports. The specific need for this research was originally identified in an earlier ACRP study published in 2008. This earlier study identified gaps in then-current research on airport- related HAP emissions and recommended additional research to help understand potential impacts and how to measure them. That study, published as ACRP Report 7: Aircraft and Airport-Related Hazardous Air Pollutants: Research Needs and Analysis, concluded that an important source of airport-related HAP compounds at most commercial airports is idling jet engines and that understanding the scale and character of this emission source was, therefore, a high priority to the airport community. ACRP Report 7 recommended a tar geted research effort to document the contribution of idling jet engines to HAP emissions, which resulted in this report.

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The results of this research can be used to improve the assessment of HAP emissions at airports based on specific operating parameters and changes in ambient conditions, recog nizing that the engine emission data presented is limited to one class of engines. Despite that limitation, the analysis demonstrates that emissions vary as a function of ambient tempera tures and idle speeds, and that these variations are significant and measurable. In the future, additional engine emissions performance testing to encompass different engine types would further improve air quality emissions assessment capability. The data provided in this study can still be used to improve emissions estimates that would otherwise not reflect changes linked to variation in ambient temperature and engine thrust characteristics experienced during passenger loading and unloading, and taxiing. In addition, the study outcome can motivate better data usage and suggest improved operations that would actually reduce emissions based on actual performance. The research described in this report involved extensive interaction among technical experts in engine operations and engine emissions performance as well as experienced air port operators. The results contribute to the important objective of understanding and, eventually, managing airport-related emissions as a function of changes in capacity and service demand.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 1 Findings 2 Implications for Airport Operators 3 Section I Introduction 4 I.1 Aircraft Engine Emissions at Airports 5 I.2 Anatomy of the High-Bypass-Ratio Turbofan Engine 6 I.3 Application of the Current Emission Model to Idle Phase Emissions 7 Section II Project Plan and Approach 7 II.1 Project Stages and Tests 7 II.2 Test Venues, Temperatures, and Engines 9 Section III Key Project Findings 10 III.1 Dependence of VOC on Fuel Flow Near Idle 11 III.2 Test Results for Engine SA012 11 III.3 Ensemble Result for Fuel Flow Dependence 12 III.4 Systematic Error and Fuel Flow Dependence 13 III.5 Fuel Flow Dependence and Variability 14 Section IV Relationship Between Emissions and Ambient Temperature 14 IV.1 VOC Emissions and Ambient Temperature 14 IV.2 Emissions Index Temperature Dependence 17 Section V Emissions Model Based on Near-Idle Fuel Flow and Ambient Temperature 17 V.1 Proposed Empirical Model 20 V.2 Example Application of the Model 21 Section VI Additional Findings 21 VI.1 Engine Warm-Up Emissions 21 VI.2 Near-Idle VOC Scaling 23 VI.3 Effect of Fuel Composition on Emissions 25 Section VII Applicability to Airport Practice 26 Section VIII References 27 Acronyms and Abbreviations 28 Appendix A Project Results 71 Appendix B Development of the "Near-Idle" Test Matrix

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77 Appendix C Exhaust Probe Sampling Techniques 85 Appendix D Links Between Emissions and Air Quality in the Terminal and Fence Line 88 Appendix E Quality Assurance Documentation for Analytical Methods