Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 100
88 I N T E R N AT I O N A L P E R S P E C T I V E S O N R O A D P R I C I N G However, we have also made significant progress in REFERENCES research into these issues in the past decade. We now have a much fuller understanding of the factors influenc- Abbreviations ing acceptability. We have identified the key dimensions of equity and understand better the scale of impact on DETR Department of the Environment, Transport, different groups. Technological developments have been and the Regions substantial and offer new solutions to earlier concerns. PATS Pricing Acceptability in the Transport Sector In addition, recent research into optimal scheme design offers ways of intensifying the benefits of road pricing Anderson, D., and H. Mohring. 1995. Congestion Costs and once introduced. It is only in the area of economic Congestion Pricing. Presented at Conference on impacts that significant uncertainties remain, and it Congestion Pricing, Irvine, Calif. appears unlikely that a much greater understanding can Armstrong-Wright, A. T. 1986. Road Pricing and User be obtained in the absence of empirical research. Restraint: Opportunities and Constraints in Developing The potential for a significant breakthrough in the Countries. Transportation Research A, Vol. 20, No. 2, next decade is greater than it has ever been, but much will pp. 123127. depend on the political commitment of local and national Baker, J. 2002. Implementing Urban Road Pricing: decision makers. London is particularly important in this Achievement and Barriers. Presented at 3rd IMPRINT- regard, because it offers the first demonstration of suc- EUROPE Seminar, Implementing Reform in Transport cessful application in a city to which others can relate. It Pricing: Constraints and Solutions: Learning from Best also promises, over the next 2 years, precisely the detailed Practice, Brussels, Belgium. empirical evidence called for in Curbing Gridlock (Trans- Blythe, P. T., and M. J. J. Burden. 1996. The Technical and portation Research Board and Commission on Behav- Institutional Issues Associated with the Enforcement of ioral and Social Sciences and Education 1994). London, a Multi-Land Debiting System. Presented at IEE of course, is not typical of most other cities that are con- Colloquium on Camera Enforcement of Traffic sidering road pricing; even before congestion charging Regulations. only 15% of central London commuters traveled by car. Bonsall, P., and H. J. Cho. 1999. Travellers' Response to But the detailed empirical evidence on user and system Uncertainty: The Particular Case of Drivers' Response responses should allow others to assess more reliably to Imprecisely Known Tolls and Charges. Presented at what the impacts would be in their own cities. European Transport Conference, United Kingdom. London also offers evidence for political analysts on Bonsall, P. W., and I. Palmer. 1997. Do Time-Based Road-User the processes that enable such a complex scheme to be Charges Induce Risk-Taking? Results from a Driving implemented successfully. Central government played Simulator. Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 38, the key initial role in establishing the position of the No. 4, pp. 200204. mayor and providing him with the necessary enabling Boot, J., P. Boot, and E. T. Verhoef. 1999. The Long Road legislation. The appointment of a strong, visionary Towards the Implementation of Road Pricing: The leader with such powers then enabled the scheme to be Dutch Experience. Presented at ECMT/OECD implemented, despite the loss of confidence and com- Workshop on Managing Car Use for Sustainable Urban mitment at the central government level. Paradoxically, Travel, Dublin, Ireland. the most powerful ally of the left-of-center mayor Borins, S. F. 1988. Electronic Road Pricing: An Idea Whose proved to be the business community rather than the Time May Never Come. Transportation Research A, socialist government. Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 3744. As in London, much will depend in the next decade Bristow, A. L., A. D. May, and S. P. Shepherd. 1999. Land on political will at both the national and the local levels. UseTransport Interaction Modes: The Role of European politicians are almost certainly ahead of those Environment and Accessibility in Location Choice. in North America in accepting that we cannot build our Presented at 8th World Conference on Transport Research. way out of our transport problems. But they remain Catling, I. 2000. Road User Charging Using Vehicle cautious about policies that are likely to be unattractive Positioning Systems. Presented at Conference on Road in the short term and may take much of a term of office Transport Information and Control, London. to implement. National governments need to assist by Charles, P. 2001. Begging to Differ: Tolling Interoperability in providing enabling legislation and consistent policy sup- Australia. TOLLtrans, pp. 6467. port. Local governments will succeed where they can Chin, K. K. 2002. Road Pricing: Singapore's Experience. find visionary leaders who are supported by committed Presented at IMPRINT-EUROPE Thematic Network and creative professionals. Seminar, Brussels, Belgium.
OCR for page 101
O N E S T E P F O RWA R D , T W O S T E P S B A C K ? 89 Clark, J. 2000. Sky High Tolling. ITS International. Giuliano, G. 1992. An Assessment of the Political Cohen, Y. 1987. Commuter Welfare Under Peak-Period Con- Acceptability of Congestion Pricing. Transportation, gestion Tolls: Who Gains and Who Loses? International Vol. 19, pp. 335358. Journal of Transport Economics, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. Giuliano, G. 1994. Equity and Fairness Considerations of 239266. Congestion Pricing. In Special Report 242: Curbing Commission for Integrated Transport. 2002. Paying for Road Gridlock: Peak-Period Fees to Relieve Traffic Use. London. Congestion, Vol. 2, Transportation Research Board, Commission of the European Community. 1999. Directive National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 1999/62/EC of the European Parliament and of the 250279. Council of 17 June 1999 on the Charging of Heavy Goh, M. 2002. Congestion Management and Electronic Road Goods Vehicles for the Use of Certain Infrastructures. Pricing in Singapore. Journal of Transport Geography, Commission of the European Community. 2001. Europe Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 2938. Transport Policy for 2010: Time to Decide. Brussels, Gomez-Ibanez, J. A. 1992. The Political Economy of Belgium. Highway Tolls and Congestion Pricing. In Exploring Dawson, J. A. L., and F. N. Brown. 1985. Electronic Road the Role of Pricing as a Congestion Management Tool, Pricing in Hong Kong. 1. A Fair Way to Go? Traffic Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. Engineering and Control, Vol. 26, No. 11, pp. 522525. Gomez-Ibanez, J. A., and K. A. Small. 1994. NCHRP Dawson, J. A. L., and I. Catling. 1986. Electronic Road Synthesis of Highway Practice 210: Road Pricing for Pricing in Hong Kong. Transportation Research A, Vol. Congestion Management: A Survey of International 20, No. 2, pp. 129134. Practice. Transportation Research Board, National Department of Environment. 1976. Transport Policy: A Research Council, Washington, D.C. Consultation Document. Her Majesty's Stationery Greater London Council. 1974. A Study of Supplementary Office, London. Licensing. London. Department of Transport and Regional Services. 2002. Guillermo Jordan, J., F. Soriano, D. Graullera, and G. Martin. AusLink: Towards the National Land Transport Plan. 2001. A Comparison of Different Technologies for EFC DETR. 1998. Breaking the Logjam: The Government's and Other ITS Applications. Presented at IEEE Consultation Paper on Fighting Traffic Congestion and Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference, Pollution Through Road User and Workplace Parking Oakland, Calif. Charges. United Kingdom. Halden, D. 2003. Using Accessibility Measures to Integrate Dutch Ministry of Transport. 1995. Contours of Implementation Land Use and Transport Policy in Edinburgh and the of Congestion Charging (Rekening Rijden). Abstract of a Lothians. Transport Policy, Vol. 9, pp. 313324. Letter to Parliament from the Minister of Transport. Harrington, W., A. J. Krupnick, and A. Alberini. 2001. Eliasson, J., and M. Lundberg. 2003. Road Pricing in Urban Overcoming Public Aversion to Congestion Pricing. Areas. Swedish National Road Administration, Borlange. Transportation Research A, Vol. 35, pp. 87105. Else, P. 1986. No Entry for Congestion Taxes. Transportation Hårsman, B. 2001. Urban Road Pricing Acceptance. Research A, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 99107. Presented at IMPRINT-EUROPE Seminar, Brussels, Emberger, G., A. D. May, and S. P. Shepherd. 2003. Method Belgium. to Identify Optimal Land Use and Transport Policy Hearn, D. W., and M. V. Ramana. 1998. Solving Congestion Packages. Proc., 8th International Conference on Toll Pricing Models. In Equilibrium and Advanced Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Transportation Modeling (P. Marcotte and S. Nguyen, Management, Sendai, Japan. eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Mass., pp. Foo, T. S. 2000. An Advanced Demand Management 109124. Instrument in Urban Transport: Electronic Road Holland, E. P., and P. L. Watson. 1978. Traffic Restraint in Pricing in Singapore. Cities, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 3345. Singapore: Measuring the Impacts of Area License Fridstrom, L., H. Minken, P. Moilanen, S. Shepherd, and A. Scheme. Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 19, pp. Vold. 2000. Economic and Equity Effects of Marginal 1417. Cost Pricing in Transport Case Studies from Three Hwang, K. Y., B. Son, and J. K. Eom. 1999. Effect of European Cities. VATT Research Report 71. Helsinki, Congestion Pricing at the Namsan Tunnels in Seoul. Finland. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Gerrard, W. 2000. Traffic Demand Management in Three Studies, Vol. 3, No. 4. Historical Cities: Results of a Multivariate Analysis of Jaensirisak, S., A. D. May, and M. Wardman. 2003a. Business Attitudes. WP 552. Institute for Transport Acceptability of Road User Charging: The Influence of Studies, University of Leeds, United Kingdom. Selfish and Social Perspectives. In Acceptability of
OCR for page 102
90 I N T E R N AT I O N A L P E R S P E C T I V E S O N R O A D P R I C I N G Transport Pricing Strategies (J. Schade and B. Schlag, May, A. D., S. P. Shepherd, and P. M. Timms. 2000. Optimal eds.), Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom. Transport Strategies for European Cities. Transportation, Jaensirisak, S., M. Wardman, and A. D. May. 2003b. Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 286315. Explaining Variations in Public Acceptability of Road Mayeres, I., and S. Proost. 2001. Tax Reform for Congestion Pricing Schemes. Transportation Research A (forthcom- Type of Externalities. Journal of Public Economics, Vol. ing). 79, pp. 343363. Jones, P. 1998. Urban Road Pricing: Public Acceptability and Meng, Q., and H. Yang. 2002. Benefit Distribution and Barriers to Implementation. In Road Pricing, Traffic Equity in Road Network Design. Transportation Congestion and the Environment (K. J. Button and E. Research B, Vol. 35. T. Verhoef, eds.), Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Menon, A. P. G. 2000. ERP in Singapore--A Perspective a Cheltenham, United Kingdom. Year On. Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 41, No. Jones, P. 2002. Addressing Equity Concerns in Relation to 2. Road User Charging. Presented at Conference on Ministry of Transport. 1964. Road Pricing: The Economic Acceptability of Transport Pricing Strategies, Dresden, and Technical Possibilities. Her Majesty's Stationery Germany. Office, London. Jones, P., T. Grosvenor, and D. Wofinden. 1996. Public Ministry of Transport. 1967. Better Use of Town Roads. Her Attitudes to Transport Policy and the Environment. Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Department of Transport, London. Nash, C., and B. Matthews. 2001. Why Reform Transport Kumagai, Y. 2003. Tolling Technology: Growing in Prices? Presented at 1st IMPRINT-EUROPE Seminar, Popularity. ITS International, pp. 4748. Key Requirements for Implementing Pricing Reform in Langmyhr, T. 1997. Managing Equity: The Case of Road Transport. Pricing. Transport Policy, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 2539. Ochieng, W. 2003. The Future for Satellite-Based Charging Legislative Council. 2001. Electronic Road Pricing. Hong Systems. Presented at International Symposium on Kong. Congestion Charging, London. Leung, M., and L. Liu. 1985. Government Caught at the Odeck, J., and S. Brathen. 2002. Toll Financing in Norway: Crossroads. South China Morning Post, Hong Kong, p. 5. The Success, the Failures and Perspectives for the Lewis, N. C. 1993. Road Pricing: Theory and Practice. Future. Transport Policy, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 253260. Thomas Telford, London. PATS Consortium. 2001. Recommendations on Transport May, A. D. 1975. Supplement Licensing: An Evaluation. Pricing Strategies: Final Report of the PATS Project. Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 16, No. 4. European Commission, Brussels, Belgium. May, A. D. 2004. Singapore: The Development of a World Phang, S.-Y. 1993. Singapore's Motor Vehicle Policy: Review Class Transport System. Transport Reviews, Vol. 24, of Recent Changes and a Suggested Alternative. No. 1. Transportation Research A, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. May, A. D., D. Coombe, and C. Gilliam. 1996a. The London 329336. Congestion Charging Research Programme. 3: The Richards, M., C. Gilliam, and J. Larkinson. 1996. The Assessment Methods. Traffic Engineering and Control, London Congestion Charging Research Programme 6: Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 277282. The Findings. Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 37, May, A. D., D. Coombe, and T. Travers. 1996b. The London Nos. 78, pp. 436441. Congestion Charging Research Programme. 5: Rienstra, S. A., P. Rietveld, and E. T. Verhoef. 1999. The Assessment of the Impacts. Traffic Engineering and Social Support for Policy Measures in Passenger Control, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 403408. Transport: A Statistical Analysis for the Netherlands. May, A. D., R. Liu, S. P. Shepherd, and A. Sumalee. 2002. Transportation Research D, Vol. 4, pp. 181200. The Impact of Cordon Design on the Performance of Schade, J., and B. Schlag. 2000. Acceptability of Urban Road Pricing Schemes. Transport Policy, Vol. 9, pp. Transport Pricing. VATT Research Report 72. Helsinki, 209220. Finland. May, A. D., and D. S. Milne. 2000. Effects of Alternative Schade, J., and B. Schlag. 2003. Acceptability of Urban Road Pricing Systems on Network Performance. Transport Pricing Strategies. Transportation Research Transportation Research A, Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. F, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 4561. 407436. Schlag, B., and J. Schade. 2000. Public Acceptability of Traffic May, A. D., and M. Roberts. 1995. The Design of Integrated Demand Management and Pricing Measures in Europe. Transport Strategies. Transport Policy, Vol. 2, No. 2. Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 41, No. 8, pp. May, A. D., M. Roberts, and P. Mason. 1992. The 314318. Development of Transport Strategies for Edinburgh. Seik, F. T. 1998. A Unique Demand Management Instrument Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. in Urban Transport: The Vehicle Quota System in 95, pp. 5159. Singapore. Cities, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 2739.
OCR for page 103
O N E S T E P F O RWA R D , T W O S T E P S B A C K ? 91 Sheffi, Y. 1985. Urban Transportation Networks: Equilibrium Sumalee, A. 2003. Optimal Toll Ring Design with Spatial Equity Analysis with Mathematical Programming Methods. Impact Constraint: An Evolutionary Approach. Journal Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. of Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies. Sheldon, R., M. Scott, and P. Jones. 1993. London Tomassini, M. 2002. A State of the Art of the PROGRESS Congestion Charging: Exploratory Social Research Project: The Rome Experience. Presented at 2nd Among London Residents. 21st PTRS Summer Annual IMPRINT-EUROPE Seminar, Implementing Reform in Meeting, United Kingdom, pp. 129145. Transport Pricing: Identifying Mode-Specific Issues, Shepherd, S. P. 2003. Towards Marginal Cost Pricing: A Brussels, Belgium. Comparison of Alternative Pricing Systems. Transportation, Topp, H., and T. Pharoah. 1994. Car Free City Centres. Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 411433. Transportation, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 231247. Shepherd, S. P., and A. Sumalee. 2004. A Genetic Algorithm Based Transportation Research Board and Commission on Approach to Optimal Toll Level and Location Problems. Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. 1994. Networks and Spatial Economics, Vol. 4, pp. 161179. Special Report 242: Curbing Gridlock: Peak-Period Small, K. A. 1983. The Incidence of Congestion Tolls on Fees to Relieve Traffic Congestion (two volumes). Urban Highways. Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 13, pp. 90111. Turner, D. 2001. Centre Piece. TOLLtrans, pp. 2426. Small, K. A. 1992. Using the Revenues from Congestion Verhoef, E. T. 2002. Second-Best Congestion Pricing in Pricing. Transportation, Vol. 19, pp. 359381. General Networks: Heuristic Algorithms for Finding Small, K. A., and J. Yan. 2001. The Value of "Value Pricing" of Second-Best Optimal Toll Levels and Toll Points. Roads: Second-Best Pricing and Product Differentiation. Transportation Research B, Vol. 29. Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. Viegas, J. M. 2001. Making Urban Road Pricing Acceptable 310336. and Effective: Searching for Quality and Equity in Steg, L., and G. Tertoolen. 1999. Affective Motives for Car Urban Mobility. Transport Policy, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. Use. In Transport Policy, Planning and Practice, PTRC, 289294. London, pp. 1327. Wachs, M. 2005. Then and Now: The Evolution of Congestion Still, B., A. D. May, and A. L. Bristow. 1999. Transport Pricing in Transportation and Where We Stand Today. In Impacts on Land Use: Predictive Methods and Their Conference Proceedings 34: International Perspectives Relevance in Strategic Planning. Presented at 8th World on Road Pricing, Transportation Research Board of the Conference in Transport Research. National Academies, Washington, D.C., pp. 6372. Sumalee, A. 2001. Analysing the Design Criteria of Charging Willoughby, C. 2001. Singapore's Motorization Policies, Cordons. ITS Working Paper 560. Institute for 19602000. Transport Policy, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. Transport Studies, University of Leeds, United Kingdom. 125139.