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Committee Member Biographical Information Steve Heminger, Chair, is Executive Director of the Met- industrial facility permitting, community reinvestment, ropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC), the housing, transportation, and smart growth. His book regional transportation planning and finance agency for Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class and Environmental Qual- the San Francisco Bay Area. MTC allocates roughly $1 ity (Westview Press, 2000) is a standard text in the envi- billion per year in funding for the operation, mainte- ronmental justice field. His other books include In Search nance, and expansion of the Bay Area's road and transit of the New South (University of Alabama Press, 1991), networks. MTC also functions as the region's Service Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Authority for Freeways and Expressways and has served Grassroots (South End Press, 1993), People of Color as the Bay Area Toll Authority responsible for adminis- Environmental Groups Directory 2000 (Charles Stewart tering the base $1 toll on the state-owned bridges. Mott Foundation, 2000), and Unequal Protection: Envi- Before joining MTC in 1993, he was Vice President of ronmental Justice and Communities of Color (Sierra Club Transportation for the Bay Area Council, a regional Books, 1996). He coedited Residential Apartheid: The public policy group. He also has served as a staff assis- American Legacy (University of California at Los Angeles tant in the California State Legislature and the U.S. Con- Center for African American Studies Publications, 1994); gress. He received a master of arts degree from the Just Transportation: Dismantling Race and Class Barri- University of Chicago and a bachelor of arts degree ers to Mobility (New Society Publishers, 1997); and from Georgetown University. Sprawl City: Race, Politics and Planning in Atlanta Mr. Heminger is prominent in the area of road pric- (Island Press, 2000). His most recent book is titled Just ing. He led the effort in the San Francisco Bay Area that Sustainabilities: Development. received the first congestion pricing demonstration grant from the Federal Highway Administration. He Kenneth J. Button has been Professor of Public Policy also served on the National Research Council commit- and Director of the Center for Transportation Policy and tee on congestion pricing that produced Special Report Operations in the School of Public Policy, George Mason 242: Curbing Gridlock: Peak-Period Fees to Relieve University, Fairfax, Virginia, since 1997. From 1994 to Traffic Congestion (1994). 1996 he was Conseiller in the Advisory Unit to the Sec- retary General of the Organisation for Economic Co- Robert D. Bullard is the Ware Professor of Sociology and operation and Development (OECD), Paris, where he Director of the Environmental Justice Resource Center at headed work on international aviation policy. He was at Clark Atlanta University. He is the nation's leading expert that time on leave from being concurrently Professor of on environmental justice and transportation equity. Dr. Applied Economics and Transport at Loughborough Bullard is the author of 11 books that address sustainable University, United Kingdom, and VSB Visiting Professor development, environmental justice, urban land use, of Transport and the Environment at the Tinbergen Insti- 92

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C O M M I T T E E M E M B E R B I O G R A P H I C A L I N F O R M AT I O N 93 tute, Amsterdam, Netherlands. He was also at the time Kathleen F. Marvaso is Managing Director, AAA Gov- Director of the Centre for Research in Economics and ernment Relations, Washington, D.C. In this capacity Finance at Loughborough University. He was the Special she directs all federal and state legislative activities for Advisor to the U.K. House of Commons Transport Com- the 45 million member association, focusing on a full mittee between 1993 and 1994. In 1990 he was full-time range of safety and mobility issues affecting travelers. Consultant to the OECD Environmental Directorate. Since 1993, Ms. Marvaso has been instrumental in Dr. Button's academic training is in the fields of eco- developing strategies to help the association achieve its nomics, econometrics, and transportation planning. He public service goals, improve mobility, and enhance the has published or has in press some 80 books and more safety of the traveling public. In recent years she has than 400 papers in leading academic journals. He has guided the 80-club federation's efforts to enact gradu- given written and oral evidence to transportation com- ated driver licensing laws in every state and has directed mittees of the U.S. Congress and to both the U.K. House the association's advocacy work on issues including of Lords and House of Commons Transport Commit- truck safety, highway maintenance, design and funding, tees. His work on road pricing includes jointly editing child passenger safety, and clean air. Road Pricing, Traffic Congestion and the Environment Before joining AAA, Ms. Marvaso worked as a leg- (Edward Elgar publishing), serving on the Chartered islative assistant for Congressman Bill Nelson, now one Institute of Transport (CIT) working party on Paying for of Florida's two senators, and managed campaign opera- Progress: A Report on Congestion and Road Pricing, tions for Mr. Nelson's 1990 bid for governor. A journal- and chairing the CIT working party on Paying for Better ism graduate of the University of Florida at Gainesville, Motorways. In addition, he has published articles on she earned a master's degree in business administration road pricing as chapters in numerous books and in such from George Mason University in Virginia. journals as Transportation Research; Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Anthony D. May has more than 35 years of experience Research Board; International Journal of Transport Eco- in transport planning and traffic engineering. He has nomics; Logistics and Transportation Review; Transport been a Professor at the University of Leeds, United King- Reviews; and Transportation Planning and Technology. dom, since 1977, and he has served as Head of the Dr. Button received a B.A. degree from the University of Department of Civil Engineering, Dean of the Faculty of East Anglia, an M.A. from the University of Leeds, and a Engineering, and Pro-Vice Chancellor for Research. He Ph.D. from the University of Loughborough. is currently Director of the Institute for Transport Stud- ies. Between 1985 and 2001 he maintained a link Damian J. Kulash is President and CEO of the Eno between research and teaching at Leeds and practical Transportation Foundation, Inc., Washington, D.C. He experience in consultancy with MVA Ltd., for which he has 30 years of experience in managing transportation was Director of Transport Policy. Before 1977 he spent organizations. He has been extensively involved in a number of years with the Greater London Council, transportation policy analysis and has managed many where he was responsible for policy on highways, traf- multidisciplinary, multiperspective teams to extract fic management, and transport-related land use plan- action plans in complex, difficult situations. He has ning for the capital and managed major studies on successfully brought industrial and government leaders traffic restraint, parking policy, and motorway traffic to work together and has forged new working arrange- control. ments between state and federal agencies. As Executive While at Leeds, he has been awarded more than 80 Director of the $153 million Strategic Highway research grants and contracts by the Engineering and Research Program, Mr. Kulash created and managed Physical Sciences and Economic and Social Science scores of diverse advisory committees to guide the pro- Research Councils, the European Community, the Rees gram toward useful products and to work with federal, Jeffreys Road Fund, and several local authorities. state, and industry organizations to put results into Among the studies conducted have been those for the practice. As President and CEO of the Eno Transporta- transport problems of inner-city firms, techniques for tion Foundation, he has established a series of forums monitoring travel, development of dynamic route guid- dealing with cutting-edge issues affecting all modes of ance, the management of congestion at signalized junc- transportation and their compatibility with other areas tions, the most appropriate structure for the of national concern. They include activities addressing organization of transport functions in the U.K. conur- the economic returns on transportation investment, bations, the design and assessment of road pricing coordination of intermodal freight operations in strategies, the development of trip planning systems and Europe and the United States, and development of a awareness campaigns, the combined performance of U.S. transportation strategy compatible with national transport and land use strategies, the impact of inte- global climate change objectives. grated transport strategies and their contribution to

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94 I N T E R N AT I O N A L P E R S P E C T I V E S O N R O A D P R I C I N G environmental policy, and the development of guidance Mr. Poole was one of the first to propose privatiza- on sustainable urban transport and land use policy. tion of the air traffic control system, and his work in Dr. May has been a specialist adviser to the House of this field has helped shape current proposals for an air Commons Transport Committee and the House of traffic control corporation. His 1988 policy paper on Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology and private toll roads directly inspired California's landmark a consultant to OECD, the World Bank, the Trans- legislation on the subject (since emulated in 15 other portation Research Board, the Singapore Land Trans- states); he served 18 months on the Privatization Advi- port Authority, the New Zealand Ministry of Transport, sory Steering Committee of the California Department and the Thailand Commission for the Management of of Transportation helping to implement the measure. In Land Transport. 1995 he served as a member of California's commission on transportation investment. Mr. Poole has also helped Servando M. Parapar was selected by the MiamiDade launch national debates on airport privatization and on Expressway Authority (MDX) board to serve as its first congestion pricing for urban freeways. Executive Director in 1996. Mr. Parapar's first priority Mr. Poole received bachelor's and master's degrees in was to negotiate the transfer of the MiamiDade engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- County tollway system, which was accomplished in nology. December 1996. Since then, under his leadership and guidance, MDX has put together a $2.75 billion master Edward J. Regan III is Senior Vice President of Wilbur transportation plan with the overriding objective of cre- Smith Associates (1990 to present). He is responsible for ating an integrated system that provides a seamless and the oversight and management of the TFT Group, a 45- balanced movement of traffic. The current MDX 5-year person division dedicated to providing professional ser- work program is estimated at $796 million. Mr. Parapar vices to the toll industry worldwide. Mr. Regan is a directed the strategic alliance with the Florida Depart- recognized expert in toll facility studies and finance. ment of Transportation that has led to the successful Under his leadership, traffic and revenue studies per- implementation of SunPass, a statewide electronic toll formed by the TFT Group have been used in support of collection system, at MDX facilities. Under his guidance more than $50 billion in toll facility finance. He has also MDX has utilized designbuild contracts to complete been heavily involved in the development and analysis of three roadway construction projects in record time. Mr. innovative value pricing programs for various toll facili- Parapar is also leading Phase I of the SR-836 corridor ties. His technical specialties include senior project man- reconstruction, one of the major roadways in Miami agement, transportation planning, road pricing studies, Dade County. traffic operations, toll feasibility studies, traffic and rev- Mr. Parapar serves on the boards of directors of the enue studies, strategic planning, toll collection/automatic International Bridge, Tunnel, and Turnpike Association vehicle identification system design, and toll plaza oper- and the Intelligent Transportation Society of Florida. ations. He has overseen projects in the United States, He was born in Havana, Cuba. A U.S. citizen, he holds Canada, and Australia. a bachelor's degree in architectural engineering from the University of Miami and a master's degree in civil Martin Wachs is Director of the Institute of Transporta- engineering from the University of Florida. tion Studies at the University of California, Berkeley, where he also holds faculty appointments as Professor of Robert W. Poole, Jr., is founder of the Reason Founda- City and Regional Planning and as Carlson Distin- tion and a nationally known expert on privatization and guished Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineer- transportation policy. In 1978 Mr. Poole launched the ing. Until 1996 he was Professor of Urban Planning and Reason Foundation, a national public policy research Director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at the organization. He began researching privatization of gov- University of California at Los Angeles, where he had ernment functions in the 1970s, and his book Cutting been a member of the faculty since 1971 and where he Back City Hall (Universe Books, 1980) was the first served three terms as Head of the Urban Planning Pro- book-length examination of the subject. He advised the gram. The Institute of Transportation Studies at Berkeley White House Office of Policy Development on privatiza- is one of the largest academic transportation research tion during the Reagan years and testified before the Pres- centers in the United States. It has approximately 200 ident's Commission on Privatization in 1987. During the employees and an annual budget of $40 million. first Bush administration, he worked with the Vice Presi- Dr. Wachs holds a bachelor's degree in civil engineer- dent's Competitiveness Council and the White House ing from the City University of New York and M.S. and Counsel to help develop an executive order on infrastruc- Ph.D. degrees in transportation planning from the Civil ture privatization. In 1992 he served as a board member Engineering Department at Northwestern University. He of the Vice President's Space Policy Advisory Board. is the author or editor of four books and has written

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C O M M I T T E E M E M B E R B I O G R A P H I C A L I N F O R M AT I O N 95 more than 130 published articles on transportation plan- the California Commission on Transportation Invest- ning and policy on such topics as the transportation ment, to which he was appointed by Governor Pete Wil- needs of elderly and handicapped people, fare and sub- son. He is currently a member of the Advisory Committee sidy policies in urban transportation, the problem of on Research and Development for the California Depart- crime in public transit systems, and methods for the eval- ment of Transportation and recently completed his term uation of alternative transportation projects. He has also as the first Chair of the Advisory Panel for the Travel done historical studies of the relationship between trans- Model Improvement Program of the U.S. Department of portation investments and urban form in the early part Transportation. He chairs the Subcommittee on Planning of the 20th century and on ethics in planning and fore- and Policy Review of the Transportation Research casting. Recently, his writings have dealt with trans- Board's Executive Committee. portation finance and the relationship between Professor Wachs is a Fellow of the American Institute transportation, air quality, and land use. of Certified Planners, a National Associate of the Dr. Wachs served as Chairman of the Executive Com- National Academy of Sciences, a Member of the Amer- mittee of the Transportation Research Board during ican Society of Civil Engineers, and a member of the 2000, and he recently completed a term as a member of Institute of Transportation Engineers.