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Preface I n November 2003, approximately 160 people junction with NRC's Commission on Behavioral and assembled in Key Biscayne, Florida, to participate Social Sciences and Education. That publication in the International Symposium on Road Pricing. included recommendations on the potential role of mar- Fifteen countries were represented, and the exchange ket pricing principles as a tool for congestion manage- of information on policies and approaches adopted ment, guidelines for the assessment of impacts of throughout the world was one of the symposium's congestion pricing experiments, and fruitful areas for most noteworthy features. The conference also bene- further research, demonstration, or experimentation. fited from the breadth of sectors represented; partici- The program for the Key Biscayne gathering was pants and speakers included members of academia and designed in recognition of the significant extent of exper- researchers, public officials from all levels of govern- imentation with road pricing since 1994. While Curbing ment, consultants, interest group and association rep- Gridlock and meetings leading up to its publication resentatives, and individuals from financial and legal focused largely on the rationale for testing road pricing, firms. The conference was a collaborative effort of the the organizers of this conference sought to develop a pro- Transportation Research Board (TRB), the Florida gram that would provide a detailed look at case studies Department of Transportation, the Organisation for of applications throughout the world and the results of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), research focused on specific pricing projects. To that end, and the Federal Highway Administration. the conference committee commissioned two resource The symposium was conducted under the auspices papers, both of which appear in this document. One of of TRB's parent organization, the National Research the papers dealt with the evolution of pricing, with spe- Council (NRC). In cooperation with OECD, a spe- cial attention to the state of the practice today. The other cially appointed NRC committee developed the sym- also focused on the state of the practice, with special posium to explore American and international attention to pricing initiatives outside the United States. applications of road pricing strategies in various gov- By the time the conference was over, participants had ernmental and socioeconomic settings. The partici- learned from the speakers, resource papers, and each other pants discussed the rationale and motivations for about the successes realized to date and the challenges that implementing pricing strategies, the use of pricing rev- accompanied specific projects' implementation. To round enues, and project outcomes. Drawing on resource out the session, the conference committee invited top-level papers, presentations, and symposium discussions, the policy makers or advisers from around the globe to point conference committee evaluated the current state of out any continuing concerns and offer their visions for how practice, assessed future directions and opportunities, road pricing will or ought to evolve in the coming decade. and identified research and information needs. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS BEYOND CURBING GRIDLOCK This conference would not have been possible without the This conference built on the foundation established in financial and institutional support of the Florida Depart- Curbing Gridlock: Peak-Period Fees to Relieve Traffic ment of Transportation. Special thanks are extended to Congestion, a 1994 report developed by TRB in con- Lowell Clary, Assistant Secretary of the department, for ix