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36 I N T E R N AT I O N A L P E R S P E C T I V E S O N R O A D P R I C I N G per hour on city roads and 45 to 65 kilometers per hour E-407 PROJECT IN TORONTO, on expressways. Rates are increased or decreased when ONTARIO, CANADA the average speeds for the 3-month period are outside the ranges. Imad Nassereddine We have found that the ERP has helped to spread traf- fic flow evenly over the working day and eliminate short, The $4 billion (Canadian) E-407 concession toll road is 108 sharp peak periods--though some localized congestion kilometers (67 miles) long with 39 interchanges. It is located for short periods remains along alternative routes and just north of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The road has open along the priced route immediately after the ERP stops access. No transponders or tags are required except for operations. We have also found that the ERP has encour- heavy vehicles (more than 5,000 kilograms), which must aged many drivers to consider public transport as a have a transponder. If a vehicle does not have a transponder, viable alternative. a video camera records a picture of the license plate and a bill In closing, I would like to indicate some prerequisites is sent to the registered owner. This is true for all vehicles-- for a successful pricing program: even those registered in the United States. The transponders both read and write, which allows Development and marketing of congestion pric- for multiple entry and exit points. The tolls vary with type ing and demand management as part of an overall of vehicle, time of day, and day of the week. They start at transportation strategy; C$0.1295 per kilometer for light vehicles. They double for Use of reliable and proven technology; heavy single vehicles and triple for heavy double vehicles. A system that is easy to understand and use; The E-407 concession agreement allows for rates to Wide publicity for the system; be changed with 1 month's notice, but a fixed traffic Provision of acceptable alternatives, such as good flow must be maintained. Usage of E-407 has increased public transport; and steadily from 180,000 vehicles per day in 1999 to Special provisions or exemptions for foreign vehicles. 300,000 vehicles per day in 2003.