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Contents PREFACE ....................................................................................................................................................ix BACKGROUND AND TERMINOLOGY .............................................................................................................1 COMMITTEE FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .........................................................................................3 SETTING THE STAGE Welcoming Remarks and Charge to the Conference .................................................................................9 Bob Oldakowski, Lowell Clary, Sherri Alston, Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Martine Micozzi, and Steve Heminger Road Pricing in Context: The Efficient Allocation of a Limited Resource ..............................................11 Then and Now: The Evolution of Transport Pricing and Where We Are Today, 11 Martin Wachs One Step Forward, Two Steps Back? An Overview of Road Pricing Applications and Research Outside the United States, 12 Anthony May KEYNOTE ADDRESSES Central London's Congestion Charging Scheme: Has It Achieved Its Objectives? ...................................17 Derek Turner Out on a Limb: Pricing Futures...............................................................................................................18 Kenneth Small SPECIAL TOPICS Ah, the Politics of Pricing........................................................................................................................21 How Politics Affects Even Good Projects, 21 Eric Schreffler The Bridges of Lee County, Florida, 22 John Albion What Do Politicians Really Need to Know? 22 Jan A. Martinsen A Closer Look: Pricing Across the States ................................................................................................24 Toll Road Applications: Perspectives from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, 24 Mark Muriello Plans for Variable Pricing by Florida's Turnpike Enterprise, 25 Jim Ely

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Mileage-Based Applications: Minneapolis, Minnesota, 26 Jeff Buxbaum New Lane Applications: California State Route 91, 26 Ellen Burton Calculating Costs and Measuring Benefits of Pricing Schemes ................................................................28 Costs and Benefits of Pricing Schemes for the Netherlands, 28 Erna Schol Why Reform Transport Pricing? An Overview of European Transport Infrastructure Charging Policy and Research, 29 Christopher Nash An Exploration of Motor Vehicle Congestion Charges in New York, 29 Jeffrey Zupan and Alexis Perrotta Relevance of Pricing to External Cost Calculation: Recent Results, 30 Andrea Ricci Role of Pricing Revenue in Financing Projects and Services ....................................................................32 Lord of the Rings, Trondheim, Norway, 32 Erik Amdal Bus Rapid Transit/High-Occupancy Toll Networks, 33 Robert Poole Tolling the A-86 Tunnel in Versailles, France, 33 Dario D'Annunzio Pricing Goes Global ................................................................................................................................34 Variable Road Pricing in France, 34 David LeCoffre Testing the Real-World Acceptance and Effectiveness of Urban Pricing, 34 Marcel Rommerts Evaluation of Singapore's Electronic Road Pricing System, 35 Gopinath Menon E-407 Project in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 36 Imad Nassereddine "CarTrek": Integrating Technology with Pricing Schemes ......................................................................37 Technology and Pricing: Cause or Effect? 37 Harold Worrall Electronic Toll Collection in Japan: A Wide Variety of Tolling Applications, 38 Kuniaki Nakamura and Nihon Doro Kodan Evaluation of Active Pricing Schemes: Expectations, Revelations, and Illuminations ..............................39 Lessons Learned from Paying for Parking, 39 Donald Shoup A Look Back: California State Route 91, 40 Edward Sullivan Urban Tolls in Oslo, Norway: Experiences and Conditions for Implementation, 40 Kristian Wrsted A Closer Look at the Real World ............................................................................................................42 Managing the Streets of London, 42 Derek Turner Failed Schemes in Pricing, 43 Stephen Ison Impacts of Pricing on Interurban Freight Transportation ........................................................................44 Toll Truckways: Using Pricing to Finance New Goods-Movement Infrastructure, 44 Robert Poole

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Overview of Studies on Heavy Vehicle Charges, 44 Tony Wilson Effects of Pricing on Trucks in the United States, 45 Darrin Roth Tolling Heavy Goods Vehicles on Germany's Autobahnen, 46 Andreas Kossak Winners, Losers, or a Zero-Sum Game? The Distributional Impacts of Pricing Schemes ........................48 Welfare and Distributional Effects of Alternative Road Pricing Policies for Metropolitan Washington, D.C., 48 Peter Nelson Road Pricing and Equity in Norway, 49 Farideh Ramjerdi Impacts of Pricing on Income Classes, 49 Douglass Lee Urban Freight Transportation .................................................................................................................51 Moving the Goods in Los Angeles, 51 Mark Griffin Trucks' Value of Time: Implications for Congestion and Weight Limits, 52 David Levinson Road Pricing and Urban Freight in Europe: Practices and Developments from the BestUFS Project, 52 Martin Ruesch The Price Is "Right": Perspectives on Finding It .....................................................................................54 Innovative Financing's Role in Pricing Projects, 54 Genevieve Giuliano Experiences with Active Projects: Interstate 10, 55 Ed Regan Interstate 680 and Other California Projects, 55 Jim Bourgart Price Demand Elasticities and Usage of Houston's HOT Lanes, 56 Mark Burris Factoring Pricing into the Planning Process.............................................................................................57 Public Acceptance of Pricing Schemes for the Netherlands, 57 Yvonne Need Pricing Traffic, Pacing Growth, 58 Robert Dunphy Responses to Findings: The Future of Pricing .........................................................................................59 Steve Heminger, Emil Frankel, Marcel Rommerts, Anne Canby, and Dan Beal RESOURCE PAPERS Then and Now: The Evolution of Congestion Pricing in Transportation and Where We Stand Today.......................................................................................................................63 Martin Wachs One Step Forward, Two Steps Back? An Overview of Road Pricing Applications and Research Outside the United States ....................................................................................................................73 Anthony D. May and A. Sumalee COMMITTEE MEMBER BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION ..................................................................................92 PARTICIPANTS ...........................................................................................................................................96

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