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76 I N T E R N AT I O N A L P E R S P E C T I V E S O N R O A D P R I C I N G TABLE 1 Key Characteristics of the Norwegian Toll Rings Bergen Oslo Trondheim Kristiansand Stavenger City population 213,000 456,000 138,000 70,000 103,000 Starting date Jan. 1986 Feb. 1990 Oct. 1991 April 1992 April 2001 Number of toll stations 7 19 22 5 21 Charging regime Uniform Uniform Peak and off-peak Uniform charge Peak and off-peak charge charge charge chargea Entry charge for small vehicles (NKr)b 10 15 15 (for all periods 10 10 (peak) for manual payment)c 11 (off peak) Charging period Weekdays, All days, Weekdays, Weekdays, Weekdays, 6 a.m.10 p.m. all hours 6 a.m.6 p.m. 6 a.m.6 p.m. 6 a.m.6 p.m. Discount Discount for Discount for Discount for users Discount for Several advance monthly prepaid tickets of electronic monthly payment discounts subscriptions systems subscriptions with AutoPass Annual gross reve- nues (NKr millions) 156 1,046 168 95 80 Annual operating costs (NKr millions) 30 103 17 20 21 a Peak period: 79 a.m. and 25 p.m.; off-peak period: other times between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. b Heavy vehicles are charged double price. c For prepayment of 6,000 NKr, 9 NKr between 6 and 10 a.m. and 6 NKr between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m.; for prepayment of 3,000 NKr, 10.5 NKr between 6 and 10 a.m. and 7.5 NKr between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m.; for prepayment of 1,000 NKr, 12 NKr between 6 and 10 a.m. and 9 NKr between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m. tives can never be mixed. This means that today's tolling ern bypass, and introducing a toll ring just outside the systems must be dismantled before any urban pricing inner ring road. Tolls would have been around $2 at scheme can be introduced. Public acceptance of these current prices, with the possibility of variations by time changes is also uncertain. While 54% opposed Bergen's of day and by standard of emission controls. With the toll ring before its implementation, that had fallen to outer bypass tolls, they would have been designed to 37% a year later. It is not clear whether toll rings provide the main source of finance for the investments. designed for congestion charging will attract such major- While the proposals initially had the support of all the ity support. main political parties, it soon became clear that both the inner ring road and the toll ring were highly controver- sial, and the proposals were dropped in 1997. However, Sweden other agencies, including the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, the Swedish Institute for Transport and Sweden has had an interest in restraining traffic, partic- Communications Analysis, and the Swedish Environ- ularly in Stockholm and Gothenburg, since the 1980s. mental Protection Agency, have since submitted propos- Its main focus has been protection of the environment, als for somewhat similar pricing schemes. Most recently, although relief of congestion has also been an issue. The the Swedish National Road Administration has pub- most significant proposal for Stockholm emerged in lished a review of the options for road pricing in urban 1991 as part of the Dennis agreement (Gomez-Ibanez areas (Eliasson and Lundberg 2003). While the review and Small 1994). The Dennis package involved relieving does not make specific proposals, it is one of the most traffic problems in the inner city by improving public comprehensive summaries of successes and failures in transport, building an inner ring road and a tolled west- road pricing currently available.