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O N E S T E P F O RWA R D , T W O S T E P S B A C K ? 85 employment. Both studies suggested that the impacts of IVU technology adopted in the Singapore ERP uses a changes in accessibility were larger than but opposite in transponder with full two-way communication facili- sign to the impacts of changes in environmental quality. ties with a smart card interface that is able to store and This remains an area of considerable uncertainty on process the data. The same system is being tested and which more evidence is needed. implemented widely in Japan as the basis for the future road user charging system (Kumagai 2003). The DSRC system operates at free-flow level at the Technology charging points. Therefore, it requires a high-level enforcement technology for detecting noncomplying In the past, the operation of point-based road pricing vehicles (Blythe and Burden 1996). The technology cur- schemes was mostly based on manual toll collection or rently adopted is automatic number plate recognition automatic coin collection machines at tollbooths. The (ANPR) and closed-circuit television. ANPR has already operation required vehicles to slow down and stop at the been tested and used effectively in many cases such as tollbooth. This system offers a high level of reliability the Highway 407 system in Toronto, the CityLink and enforcement. It also involves a simple technology scheme in Melbourne, the ERP in Singapore, and that is widely accepted. However, the system creates seri- recently the ALS in London (Turner 2001). At the charg- ous congestion around the toll collection area. An alter- ing point, if the vehicle is detected as not having an IVU native charging regime is an area-based charging system. or smart card or if the card lacks sufficient funds, the The original ALS in Singapore was a showcase of the number plate will be captured by the ANPR and application of a paper-based system involving a mini- processed. In London, ANPR cameras at various points mum level of technology (Holland and Watson 1978). inside the charging zone record all vehicles, and each The downside of the paper-based system is the intensity vehicle number plate is compared with the database of of manual enforcement. Electronic technology for charg- registered numbers. ing and enforcement is seen as the pathway to the future The DSRC can operate at different frequencies. This success of the implementation of road pricing. caused a problem in terms of interoperability of different Key challenges for technology include reliability, the systems developed by different providers (Clark 2000). cost of implementation, and privacy. In addition, well- An example is the problem in Australia, where the toll designed technology can provide for greater flexibility systems operated in Sydney and Melbourne are based on in the range of users and vehicle origins, for more com- different standards and are not compatible (Charles plex charging regimes of the kinds outlined below, and 2001). In the United States the 915-MHz band was cho- for solutions to equity concerns by permitting varying sen as the national standard, while the European Com- charges and exemptions for different types of users. mittee for Standardization (CEN) chose 5.8 GHz to In the past decade there has been rapid development avoid the frequency band of the European Global Sys- in charging technology in response to the requirements tem for Mobile Communications. In Japan, the Associa- mentioned above. There are two main avenues for the tion of Radio Industry and Businesses also chose 5.8 current development of charging technology. The first GHz as the national standard, but the standard is not involves use of the DSRC system. The system is made up compliant with the CEN standard (Guillermo Jordan et of two main types of equipment: roadside equipment al. 2001). To overcome the interoperability problem, the (RSE) and in-vehicle units (IVUs) that enable two-way Norwegian government set up a company, AutoPASS, to communication using DSRC. The RSE is connected to a develop and operate the charging technology for tolling computer, which carries out the necessary processing. facilities in Norway. The new AutoPASS is consistent The arrangement tested in Hong Kong in the 1980s with both global ISO standards and European standards relied on a similar system (Dawson and Catling 1986). (CEN). The new specifications are used in the replace- However, the Hong Kong system was claimed to violate ment of four systems in Oslo, Trondheim, Rennfast, and privacy because of its IVU and back-office technology Hvaler. In addition, AutoPASS users can use their cards (Borins 1988). The IVU technology in the early study in on almost half of the toll road projects in Norway. Hong Kong was a read-only tag that could signify only As an alternative to the DSRC-based system, the the identity of the vehicle to the RSE. The read-only tag Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the Gen- could not convey any information such as credits or eral Packet Radio System (GPRS) can be adapted to charges incurred. operate point and distance charging systems (Catling The Singapore ERP overcomes this problem by 2000). GNSS uses a satellite-based positioning and navi- introducing smart card technology for use with IVUs gation system to compute the location of a vehicle in a (Menon 2000). Instead of having an account for each road network. Currently, the United States and Russia vehicle, a smart card contains available funds from provide the two navigation satellite systems (GPS and which charges are deducted at the charging point. The GLONASS, respectively). EU's Galileo alternative is due