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13 Chapter FIVE ORGANIZATIONAL Governance of Sustainability Organizational governance of sustainability refers to the key indicator of the potential for successful implementation management, organization, and operation of sustainability is the relationship between the person(s) responsible for sus- issues at an airport. It is important to understand how an tainability and key leaders in the organization. The follow- airport functions with regard to sustainability practices. ing proportions of respondents from U.S. airports said that To gather information on the characteristics of the orga- those with responsibility for sustainability practices at their nizations that own or manage airports, the survey queried airport reported to the CEO: respondents on organizational governance from a sustain- ability perspective. Large: 56% (5 of 9 airports) Medium: 25% (1 of 4 airports) Small: 50% (1 of 2 airports) Roles and Responsibilities Non-hub: 0% (0 of 1 airport). Management of sustainability practices can be the responsi- Non-U.S. Airports bility of one person or can be spread over a number of roles in an organization. The survey sought to obtain information Most respondents from airports in continental Europe and on the role of the respondent, whether the responsibility for Canada said that one person was responsible for manag- implementation of sustainability practices was shared or not, ing sustainability practices at their airport. For example, and how closely the responsible person(s) worked with man- Aroports de Paris has a sustainable responsibility director agement on sustainability issues (see Table 6). who is specifically assigned to manage such initiatives. In Asia, the responsibility was more likely to be allocated to U.S. Airports more than one person. Non-U.S. airport respondents identi- fied roles--such as safety manager or community affairs Respondents from U.S. airports generally said that more manager--that also carried responsibility for environmen- than one person at their airport is responsible for sustain- tal issues. ability practices. Four of the nine respondents (44%) from large hub airports said that one person is a dedicated man- The following proportions of respondents from non-U.S. ager of sustainability matters at their airport. Sustainability airports said that those with responsibility for sustainability practices at small and non-hub airports were the responsi- practices at their airport reported to the CEO: bility of the airport manager or finance director. Medium and large airport respondents identified more specific roles, Continental Europe: 60% (3 of 5 airports) such as managers of environment, engineering, facilities, or Asia: 0% (0 of 1 airport) safety. One respondent from a medium airport said that no United Kingdom: no response (0 of 1 airport) one had overall responsibility for sustainability practices. Canada: 100% (2 of 2 airports). Implementing sustainability practices in an airport orga- nization usually involves the introduction of new ideas, con- Training cepts, and approaches. As stated in the proceedings of a TRB conference on sustainability, "[T]ransportation planning Business and industry are ideal sites for ongoing sustain- agencies face cultural challenges that must be overcome ability training, so that all sectors of the workforce have to address unsustainable transportation impacts. Cultural the knowledge and skills necessary to make decisions and issues must be accommodated to enable the incorporation perform their work in a sustainable manner ("Decade of of sustainability-friendly solutions" (Integrating Sustain- Education..." 2007). Airport operators oversee crucial com- ability... 2004). ponents of the air transportation infrastructure and are key stakeholders in the transportation industry. A number of the A primary challenge is achieving management commitment respondents identified lack of understanding as a key barrier to implementing sustainability practices at an airport, and a to implementation of sustainability practices.

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14 Table 6 Responsibility for sustainability practices identified by U.S. and Non-U.S. airport respondents Responsibility For Sustainability Practices >1 Person 1 Person Airport Size Description Description U.S. Airports Non- Airports Manager + Assistant Airports Manager 0% 100% Hub (1) Small Hub Finance Manager + Capital Program Administrator + Business Services 0% 50% (2) Manager Manager Engineering & Construction + Senior Director Planning/ Engineering + Director Facilities & Maintenance Medium Director Aviation + GM Aviation Environment & Safety + Chief 0% 75% Hub (4) Environmental Officer ESH Supervisor + Environmental Coordinator + Associate General Counsel Environmental Director Environmental Programs + Director Engineering + Director Services Planning Manager Senior Director Maintenance + Senior Architect Deputy Executive VP Operations + VP Environmental Affairs + VP Energy Large Hub % Respondents 44% Executive 56% Transport Management (9) Director Director Environmental Planning/Permits + Chief Environmental Environmental Management + Director Planning/Urban Design Coordinator Deputy MD Aviation Facilities & Environment + Manager Aviation Environmental Programs Non-U.S. Airports Manager Safety Head of Environmental Protection + Others & Environment Head of Environment + Head of Airport Business Development Continental 60% Sustainable 40% Europe (5) Responsibility Director Corporate Environmental Manager Asia (1) 0% 100% Assistant Environmental Manager United No response 100% 0% Kingdom (1) provided VP Operations Canada (2) 100% VP Community 0% & Environmental Affairs The survey asked respondents to provide information on on social (75%) and economic (50%) sustainability topics. the provision of training on environmental, social, and eco- Specific training topics include: nomic sustainability topics. Table 7 shows the proportion of survey respondents who identified environmental, economic, Environmental management system training. and social sustainability training at their airports. Diversity training. Disadvantaged business enterprises training. U.S. Airports Non-U.S. Airports With the exception of the non-hub respondent, all U.S. respondents said that their airports provide training for staff Respondents from non-U.S. airports also consistently said on environmental sustainability topics. To a greater extent that environmental training is offered at their airport. Train- than large airports, medium airports also provide training ing on social sustainability topics was cited by respondents