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18 describing specific policies, performance monitoring, and reporting practices: Rating 1 2 3 4 5 U.S. Airports "First comprehensive environmental sustainability report will be published in June 2007" (self-assessment Non-Hub (1) 100% = 5). Small Hub (2) 50% 50% "The airport has implemented a formal sustainability Medium Hub (4) 75% 25% % Respondents performance improvement management system. This Large Hub (9) 11% 11% 56% 22% management system incorporates sustainable prac- tices, and monitoring, reporting and improvement into Non-U.S. Airports operations" (self-assessment = 4). Continental 20% 20% 60% "Compliance practices are very well developed; no Europe (5) sustainability program policy, funding, or baseline Asia (1) 100% developed yet" (self-assessment = 3). United Kingdom (1) 100% "Performance driven by EMS [environmental manage- ment system]" (self-assessment = 4). Canada (2) 100% Non-U.S. Airports FIGURE 5 Environmental sustainability self-assessment by respondents representing U.S. and non-U.S. airports. The respondents from non-U.S. airports generally ranked their airport's environmental performance at high lev- els: 3 for the UK; 3, 4, and 5 for continental Europe; 5 performance. Respondents were asked if their airport has for Canada; and 4 for Asia. The respondent from Toronto implemented any of the following: International Airport commented, "We are the first airport registered to ISO 14001 in North America." (ISO 14001 is EMS certified to ISO 14001. the international standard for environmental management EMS uncertified. systems.) Registration with the EU eco-management and audit scheme (EMAS). Other measurement or monitoring systems. Measurement and Monitoring A systematic approach makes managing a business both An environmental management system (EMS) outlines specific activities for the implementation of an easier and more effective. Management systems allow busi- organization's environmental policy. The International nesses to define the best way to handle each key activity Organization for Standardization (ISO) produced the and create a common approach that all employees can use. ISO 14001 standard against which an organization's A consistent approach reduces the number of mistakes and EMS is assessed and certified internationally the cost of correcting problems. It also reduces the level of (ISO 14001:2004 2007). The EPA supports and risk and ensures compliance with legislation ("Set Up a promotes the development and use of EMSs to help Health..." 2007). organizations achieve their environmental obligations and broaden environmental performance goals. EPA An environmental management system (EMS) is a busi- does not specifically favor ISO 14001 over other EMS ness management practice that allows an organization to models or approaches. The plandocheckact/ strategically address environmental matters. Several EMS continual improvement approach used by ISO 14001 and similar models has proven to be effective as frameworks exist; most are based on the International Orga- applied to environmental management, but not all nization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 EMS standard. facilities have modeled their EMSs on ISO 14001 Globally, more than 130,000 organizations have certified ("EPA's Position on EMS" 2007). their EMSs to the standard. Although an EMS does not relieve an airport operator of its environmental responsibili- The European Union's eco-management and audit ties under federal, state, and local law, it can reduce the costs scheme (EMAS) acknowledges organizations that and time for processing environmental analyses by provid- improve their environmental performance on an ing baseline data and a framework for checking and report- ongoing basis. EMAS registered organizations are ing compliance with mitigation commitments ("Program legally compliant, run an environmental management system, and report on their environmental performance Guidance Letter 06-07..." 2007). in an independently verified environmental statement ("EMAS: The Eco Management and Audit Scheme" The synthesis survey sought to identify airports that have 2007). implemented a system to measure and monitor environmental