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20 prominently posted in restrooms, so people can report leaky Reducing impermeable surfaces (runways, taxiing faucets or other water problems. lanes, buildings, etc.). Spill traps/management, oil separator pumping sta- The survey respondents said that the following practices tions, fuel delivery systems. to enhance water conservation and efficient use of water are Dyke system and flood storage capacity. in place at their airports: (TRB ACRP is also publishing Project 02-02, "Planning Low flow/automatic fixtures and toilets, and waterless Guidelines and Best Management Practices for Aircraft and urinals. Airfield De-icing Stormwater Management Systems." For Monitoring to track water consumption and water con- more information, go to www.trb.org.) servation audits. Capturing and partially infiltrating rainwater. The principal law governing pollution of U.S. surface Use of gray/storm/recycled water for irrigation and waters is the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean recycled water for car washes. Water Act). Originally enacted in 1948, it was totally revised Computer-controlled, "smart" irrigation systems. in 1972 by amendments that spelled out ambitious programs Green roofs and limited landscaping that features xeri- for water quality improvement. These programs have been scape and drought-tolerant species. expanded and are still being implemented by industries and Water-efficient central heating and cooling systems. municipalities. The Clean Water Act has two major parts: (1) provisions that authorize federal financial assistance for Water Quality municipal sewage treatment plant construction, and (2) reg- ulatory requirements that apply to industrial and municipal The 21st century water environment holds many complex dischargers (Copeland 2002). and challenging problems, such as polluted runoff, suburban growth, drinking water security, groundwater/surface water Several airport respondents identified water quality prac- interactions, invasive species, microbes in drinking water, tices at their airports that are direct responses to the Clean and atmospheric deposition. These problems require a mod- Water Act, such as water-efficient equipment and facilities, ern approach to environmental protection--an approach and enhancing the management of stormwater runoff in grounded in sound science, innovative solutions, and broad response to National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Sys- public involvement (Mehan 2007). tem permitting requirements. De-icing involves the removal of frost, snow, or ice Air Quality from aircraft surfaces or from paved areas, including runways, taxiways, and gate areas. More than a quarter of all commercial airports operating in De-icing can be performed mechanically or by applying the United States are located in air quality nonattainment chemical agents (Aviation and Environment... 2000, areas. As federal controls become increasingly stringent for p. 18). industrial sources, airports are emerging as a major source of pollution--they are responsible for up to 10% of total emis- sions in some urban areas. To receive regulatory approval, Activities of airport operators have the potential to influ- an airport located in a nonattainment area must show that its ence local water quality. Transportation and storage of fuels, growth will conform with air quality plans for the region and de-icing of aircraft and surfaces, and indirect pollution can that, at a minimum, enforceable programs will be established lower the quality of watersheds and water bodies near an to offset increases in pollution (Alternative Fuel... 2001). airport. Survey respondents listed the following practices to The Clean Air Act was passed in 1970. Under the Act, EPA sets limits on certain air pollutants and on enhance water conservation and the efficient use of water at pollutants from certain sources, as well as limits on their airports: pollution levels anywhere in the United States. States must develop State Implementation Plans (SIPs) that Onsite stormwater collection, treatment, and man- outline how they will control air pollution under the agement (swales, bioretention, vaults, wetlands), and Clean Air Act. A SIP is a collection of regulations, requiring a stormwater pollution prevention plan for all programs, and policies a state will use to clean up new construction. polluted areas. The states must involve the public Onsite wastewater treatment plants. and industries through hearings and opportunities De-icing spots/pads, collection and treatment of de- to comment on the development of the state plan icing fluids. ("Plain English Guide to the Clean Air Act" 2007).