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21 Survey respondents listed the following practices to BostonLogon International Airport's voluntary address air quality issues at their airports: 15-year Air Quality Initiative (AQI) strives to maintain NOx emissions at or below 1999 levels (see Figure 7). Air quality monitoring and metering. Particle filters on airport vehicles. Air quality management plan (tied to 20-year master plan) and air quality enhancement program. Partnering with research institutions and resource agencies to address air quality issues. Planning for development that complies with the SIP and the Clean Air Act. Active dust control, permitting, and conformity analy- sis programs. Stationary source reductions. Transport Demand Management (strategies or policies to reduce or redistribute automobile travel demand). Several survey respondents from both U.S. and non- U.S. airports identified research efforts and partnerships with universities or aviation research bodies on air quality FIGURE 7Air quality practices at Logan International Airport issues: (Massachusetts). Participation in ACRP's Hazardous Air Pollutants study and sustainability survey. Use of compressed natural gas (CNG), electricity, Support for the International Civil Aviation propane, solar power, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel Organization's development of new guidance govern- fuels. ing the calculation of emission sources at airports. Provision of a public CNG fueling station and electric vehicle charging stations. Climate Change Aroports de Paris uses energy management as a key indicator in strategic decision making. All revenue At the global level, climate change is likely to drive impor- generated by savings in CO2 emissions are used tant changes in the aviation industry over the next 10 to for energy management. For accounting year 2005, 20 years (Upham et al. 2003). Growth in global air trans- 10,000 tonnes of CO2 were sold under prior virtuous port is forecast to triple aviation carbon dioxide emissions practices. between 1990 and 2050, and total radiative forcing (global warming) effects are forecast to increase fourfold over the same period ("Aviation and the Global Atmosphere" Passenger Access 1999). Intraterminal train, automated people movers. Comprehensive public transportation network, invest- Airport operators are realizing how construction, oper- ment in light rapid transit to airport, subsidized public ation, maintenance, and other activities at airport facili- transport. ties can contribute to the industry's overall climate change Flyaway program providing parking and reduced rate impacts. Airports can play a role in reducing their impact bus service from remote locations to the airport (reduced on climate change by addressing emissions in ground emissions by more than 1,000 tonnes last year). transportation, energy use in buildings, and associated indirect emissions. Aircraft on the Ground Installation of stationary aircraft energy supply sys- Survey respondents listed the following practices to tems; ground power units at all gates. reduce greenhouse gas emissions and minimize their air- Airport constructed a taxiway to reduce taxi distances port's contribution to climate change: from terminal to runway. Airport conducted the first aircraft towing trial in Ground Vehicles North America with Virgin Atlantic, Boeing, and Clean/alternative fuel vehicle program using liquefied FAA--an aircraft was towed from the gate closer to the natural gas (LNG). runway, reducing engine running time on the taxiway.