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22 Aircraft must have a power source at the gate to maintain electronic systems and pneumatic pressure for air conditioning. Aircraft formerly met this need with portable ground power units, or by running an onboard auxiliary power unit (APU)--a small turbine engine inside the fuselage. A B-737 APU burns 34 gallons of jet fuel/hour, emits exhaust on the airport ramp, and is noisy. A typical land-takeoff cycle of 1526 min burns 1217 gallons of jet fuel if the APU is used the entire time. If 100 aircraft/day eliminated use of the APU, there would be an NOx reduction of 10 tonnes/year (Rowe 2005). Aircraft in the Air Use of continuous descent approach program. FIGURE 8Airport practice in relation to reducing emissions. Air emissions charge--the most highly polluting air- craft incur the highest charge. list of incompatible land uses that encroach on airspace and Buildings approach areas is long; it includes noise-sensitive and high- Conversion of heating systems from oil to gas. density land uses such as residential areas and parks/open Tracking and reduction of airport energy consumption. spaces. Conflicts between airports and their urban environ- ments escalate as the demand for developable land increases Monitor and Manage Emissions (Oregon Department of Aviation 2003). Company-wide quota unit set up to control and manage CO2 emissions. A significant problem facing airports is incompatible land Greenhouse gas inventory reported online through uses. Noise-sensitive land uses such as parks and open space California Climate Action Registry. and residential areas near airports are considered incom- patible. Managing and treating contaminated land is also Research and Partnerships a prevalent issue for many airport operators. Placing land Support International Civil Aviation Organization uses that attract wildlife hazardous to aviation (e.g., deer, and Eurocontrol (European Organization for the large waterfowl, and flocking bird species) are other major Safety of Air Navigation) method of monitoring global concerns. emissions. Participate in the city's Zero Emissions 2020 Plan, Survey respondents listed the following practices related which commits the city to developing a clean air plan to land use at their airports. for public transit. Active participation of airport staff in local, regional, Contaminated Land state, and national climate change research and Hazardous materials management plan and team. programs. Measurement campaign to evaluate soil pollution, survey of contaminated sites, groundwater monitor- ing program. The Green Apron Policy at Hong Kong Airport involves Decontamination of polluted zones, soil and ground- replacing the existing 43-vehicle fleet with alternative- water cleanup. fuel or low-emission vehicles over the next five years, and providing fixed ground power and preconditioned air supply at each frontal gate so aircraft can shut down their Some respondents cited regulations and relationships APUs while they are parked at the gate (see Figure 8). with government to manage this issue: Clean Land Act controlled by the Netherlands Land Use Environment Department. Development of a Prospective Purchaser Agreement with the EPA for certain contaminated land One of the greatest concerns facing airports today is incom- acquisitions. patible land use. With the pressure to convert open space Polluted airport sites illustrated in a "cadastre of pol- for development and the proliferation of telecommunica- luted sites at aerodromes," published by the Swiss tion structures, the demand on the national airspace and Federal Office of Civil Aviation and available to the the ground area around airports continues to increase. The general public.