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23 ity of experimental results to a natural setting. It is also very The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers worked with difficult to generalize behavioral responses across species Redding (California) Municipal Airport staff to remove because of the multiple variables of each noise event: vol- World War IIera underground storage tanks. An ume, frequency, rate of onset, season, time of day, year, and aggressive land acquisition program seeks to prevent residential encroachment and preserve wetlands and so on (AMEC 2005). green space (see Figure 9). Survey respondents listed the following practices relating to biodiversity at their airports: Nonlethal Bird Techniques Noise systems to scare birds (fixed on cars or on the ground). Crackers to scare birds. Habitat management and landscaping that is not attrac- tive to birds. Monitoring and movement of birds away from aircraft. Managing unsealed areas of the airport as extensive grassy meadows to prevent collisions between aircraft and birds. Tallahassee Airport in Florida has implemented a FIGURE 9 Redding Municipal Airport land use practices. number of biodiversity practices including onsite conservation area for gopher tortoise (species of concern); remediation of area of bent golden aster Land Use Planning (endangered) during construction; establishment of tree bank, and use of native species in area where Survey responses related to land use planning were limited residences were demolished for noise mitigation; bird to the following: control plan uses habitat modification and harassment as primary means of reducing threat to aircraft. Plans to partner with the community on an airport- centered eco-industrial zone. Incorporating green space as much as possible in future Habitat Protection or Enhancement developments. Eighty percent of airport area is for operations and 20% for nature conservation zones, woodlands, and (Noise-compatible land uses are discussed in the "Noise bodies of water; annual plan implemented by airport's Pollution and Aesthetics" section of this chapter.) greenery maintenance service. Dolphin sanctuary/marine park to protect endangered dolphin species; membership to Marine Mammals Biodiversity Conservation Committee. Protected and enhanced foreshore habitat during dike Two key issues related to wildlife have an impact on airports: repairs. the conflict between wildlife preservation and aircraft safety, Wildlife hazard management plan. and the effects of noise on migration and nesting patterns. Wetland mitigation program. Vegetation management/habitat protection. Aircraft collisions with wildlife (commonly referred to 300-acre dunes preservation area--largest remaining as "wildlife strikes") cost the civil aviation industry in the coastal dunes fragment in Southern California, home United States at least $500 million a year in direct damages of endangered El Segundo blue butterfly; two land- and associated costs, and more than half a million hours of scape technicians remove noxious/invasive species and aircraft down time. However, it is not the economic cost of reestablish native species; biologist annually monitors wildlife strikes but the cost in human lives that requires the endangered species. industry to manage this problem (Cleary and Dolbeer 2005). Contract with U.S. Department of Agriculture. Partnership with the local conservation group to fund The effect of noise on wildlife is poorly understood for the restoration of 21 acres of grassland habitat. a number of reasons including the difficulty of separating Financial support to Nature Conservancy to manage visual and aural components of an event, and the applicabil- local nature reserve.