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25 cling waste at terminals, tenant requirements, and meeting/ Recycling and Waste Management adhering to city or county ordinances. In addition, interna- · Adequate space provided for the collection, storage, tional airports are required to meet government disease con- and disposal of recyclable materials. trol regulations for recycling and disposing of international · Waste containers around the airport for passengers and waste. Survey respondents listed the following practices tenants--transferred to onsite dumpsters and compac- related to waste management at their airports. tors, then transported to an offsite processing facility. · Thirty different waste types recycled at the airport. Tenant/Airline Waste Management · Airport offices recycle paper. · Implementing pilot programs for food/trash waste sep- aration at concessionaires. Composting · Separating solid waste types at the point of generation. · Recycling waste and scrap materials from airport, air- Respondents from both U.S. and non-U.S. airports identified line, cargo, and construction activities. a number of composting initiatives at their airports: · Planning to participate in a pilot program with other airports to target in-flight operation paper waste. · Food waste composting to organic soil conditioner for · Airport-wide recycling of cardboard, wood pallets, airport landscaping. scrap metal, batteries, and used oil. · Compost coffee grounds from an airline for use in air- port landscaping. · Food service operations participate in the food scraps Besides the waste taken off airplanes, airport waste composting program. is generated in offices, shops, restaurants, restrooms, and flight kitchens; from cargo operations, maintenance Respondents did not supply details of the composting areas, and hangars; and from landscaping, construction, and demolition. Each of these areas creates distinct operations. The U.S.DOT recommends the following: waste streams, making it complicated to establish an airport-wide recycling program (Atkin et al. 2006). Composting operations that accept only yard waste (e.g., leaves, lawn clippings, and branches) generally do not attract hazardous wildlife. Sewage sludge, woodchips, Waste Disposal Logistics and Management and similar materials are not municipal solid wastes and · Waste disposal contractor chosen to encourage the recov- may be used as compost bulking agents. The compost must ery of separated waste materials as much as possible. never include food or other municipal solid waste. Com- Each tenant chooses the number of waste types to sepa- posting operations should not be located on airport property rate at the source--cost reflects the degree of separation, ("Advisory Circular..." 2004). which provides a financial incentive for good practices. · Waste disposal logistics (landside and airside) revised in 2007 to meet EU regulations modified in response Noise Pollution AND Aesthetics to the Schengen Agreement (which seeks to abolish physical borders among European countries). Today's aircraft are typically 75% quieter than jets in the · Waste disposal services optimized through the use 1960s; however, action is needed to prevent deterioration in of new providers (shorter journeys to and from the the noise climate as air traffic growth overtakes the rate of airport) and more efficient means of transport (vehicles technological advance (UK Department for Transport 2003). with trailers to reduce the number of trips required). · Feasibility study concerning separate disposal of The Fly Quiet Program onboard waste (e.g., newspapers/paper from aircraft at San Francisco cabins and onboard catering recyclables). International Airport takes a participatory Waste Minimization approach to complying · Implementing waste minimization program for paper, with noise abatement procedures by grading cardboard, aluminum cans, plastic bottles, plastic airline performance, sheets, fluorescent tubes, lube oil, food waste for com- making scores posting, and CDs. available to the public, · Reducing number of copier machines by 12% airport- and presenting awards wide. to high achievers · Reproducing engineering/architectural contracts and (see Figure 12). bid documents on CDs and submitting work orders FIGURE 12San Francisco electronically. International Airport noise · Reducing paper towel use in restrooms. management activities.