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26 Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 150 prescribes the procedures, standards, and methodology governing the Land use decisions that conflict with aviation activity and airport facilities can result in undue constraints development, submission, and review of airport noise expo- on an airport. To enable this sector of the economy to sure maps and airport noise compatibility programs, includ- expand, to provide a wide variety of job opportunities ing the process for evaluating and approving or disapproving for local citizens, and to meet the needs of the traveling those programs. It also identifies land uses that are normally public, it is vitally important that airports operate in an compatible with various levels of exposure to noise by indi- environment that maximizes the compatibility of the viduals ("Electonic Code..." 2007). Survey respondents airport with off-airport development (Program Guidance listed the following practices related to noise pollution or Letter 06-07 2007, pp. 1-31-4). aesthetics at their airports: The FAA has prepared a guide to help all involved to work together to protect this valuable resource and to Aircraft in the Air promote land use compatibility around airports. "Land Use · Separate pricing for low-sound-classified planes. Compatibility and Airports: A Guide for Effective Land Use · Chapter 2 aircraft that produce more noise were Planning" is available on the FAA website (www.faa.gov). phased out. · Only the quietest aircraft are authorized to fly at night. Research and Partnerships · Arrivals and departures occur over the ocean and not · Working with FAA Air Traffic Control to suggest over residential areas. changes to approach and departure procedures to · VHF omni range radio beacon guides aircraft on a reduce noise impact on neighboring residents. noise abatement route. · Working with Boeing, FAA, and United Airlines on Oceanic Tailored Arrivals to reduce noise from flights arriving from the Pacific Rim. The FAA has developed a toolkit for land use planning · Working with community group, FAA, and airlines to around airports. "Airport Noise Compatibility Planning address noise issues. Toolkit" is available on the FAA website (www.faa. · Study to implement continuous decent approach gov). The toolkit helps local governments and planners develop noise-compatible land use plans for airports procedure. and their environs. Several respondents identified practices required by regulations: Aircraft on the Ground · Limitations on taxiing and engine testing; engine · Local regulations limit neighborhood construction run-up pad to attenuate noise from engine testing. and air traffic. · Preferential runway use policy--limits departures to · Altered takeoff patterns imposed by authorities. runways in the interior of the airport. · Ground run-up enclosure contains noise from mainte- nance testing. Energy Surrounding Neighborhoods Energy efficiency is not a new concept among airport · Housing scheme for noise insulation; airport soundproof- operators and designers. Kaszewski and Sheate (2004) cite ing program; residential noise mitigation program. several airports that have adopted green construction; for · Noise walls constructed. example, Stansted (UK), Barajas-Madrid (Spain), and Chep · Enhancement program--parkways and greenbelts Lap Kok (Hong Kong) airports have all maximized the use along the airport perimeter as an attractive buffer of natural lighting in their terminal buildings. These build- between the airport and the community. ings also incorporate very high standards of insulation and · Noise mitigation program for residential areas, schools, high heat-recovery air-conditioning systems. and other sensitive public buildings. The activities and facilities operating at airports are Monitoring very energy-intensive environments. The use of electricity, · Permanent noise monitoring system to monitor noise requirements for heating and cooling, and specific energy levels in communities around the airport (29 stations). requirements for aircraft operations and maintenance keep · Airport Noise Abatement Office maintains a database energy demand at high levels. The synthesis survey sought of all complaints from nearby communities about air- to identify airport practices that reduce energy through effi- port noise nuisance. ciency of design and operation and use of low- or zero-car- · Noise mitigation program with full-time staff and bon energy sources. Survey respondents listed the following extensive noise monitoring system. practices related to energy use or efficiency at their airports.