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27 Management Motivated by the West Coast energy crisis of Preliminary energy audit. 20002001, the SeattleTacoma International Airport Regulations related to insulation, energy efficiency, invested $7 million over five years to reduce electricity and CO2 emissions are becoming stronger--working consumption by $1.7 million/year. Initiatives included light retrofitting, improving HVAC efficiency and group formed to examine possibilities. escalator efficiency, and using improved architectural Energy reduction team identifies opportunities to standards for new buildings ("Improving Building improve energy efficiency. Efficiency..." 2004, p. 3) (see Figure 13). Agreement with Department of Water and Power for 15% green power in all facilities. (TRB ACRP is in the process of publishing Project 11-02/ Task 1, "Model for Improving Energy Use in U.S. Airport Facilities." This model will provide guidance for facility managers on improving energy use through improved ener- gy-related operations and maintenance procedures; commis- sioning/optimizing major energy-consuming systems; and installation of the latest cost-effective energy conservation measures. For more information, go to www.trb.org.) Green Building Green buildings are designed, constructed, and operated to boost environmental, economic, health, and productiv- FIGURE 13 Port of Seattle energy practices. ity performance. Many of the benefits of green building technologies and practices for occupants, owners, the envi- Interiors ronment, and society at large are quantifiable and well doc- Automatic lights/system based on ambient lighting and umented. These benefits include measurable reduction of occupancy; use of a light intensity meter; changing incan- waste, decreased water use, energy savings, reduced operat- descent bulbs to fluorescent; uncoupling strip lights, using ing and maintenance costs, and improved indoor air quality. efficient ballasts; computer-operated lighting systems. Less tangible benefits are improvements in occupant health, Automatic engine and heating, ventilation, and air employee morale, productivity, recruitment, and retention, conditioning (HVAC) control, hot air curtains, airflow and an improved public image for the organization that return, carbon monoxide monitors to reduce unneces- builds green (U.S. Green Building Council 2003). sary HVAC, upgraded air-handling units with variable speed drives and soft-start controls; changing the heat- When queried on priorities for sustainability in the next ing source from fuel oil to natural gas and using excess five years, survey respondents selected energy efficiency heat for cooling. and green building as the top two priorities for their air- Energy Star energy-efficient equipment. ports. They cited the following practices related to green Grouping flights in a certain part of the concourse dur- building: ing nonpeak hours allows the airport to shut off air conditioning and lighting in unused areas. Escalator sleep mode. Established in 1996 in France, the High Quality Environmental (HQE) Association involves French Solar hot water panels reduce natural gas consumption, businesses, industries, experts, and project managers as boilers are not required in the summer. in developingg the environmental quality of buildings in 20kW capacity solar photovoltaic panel array on roof the residential and tertiary sectors. The HQE approach of airport building. requires the environment to be taken into consideration at every stage of the development and life of a building As a result of the modification of the VLAREM II (planning, design, construction, demolition, etc.). Many regulation (Flemish regulation on environmental permits), parameters are integrated, including the management the Brussels Airport Company is obliged to develop of energy, water, and waste; air quality and the quality periodic energy plans. An exhaustive energy audit carried of the spaces; and reducing the noise and visual out in 20052006 has resulted in three energy plans. pollution typical of building sites. The HQE approach is The energy-saving measures laid out in these plans will a wide-ranging cross-disciplinary approach to the living be carried out in 20072008 ("Energy Planning" 2007). environment ("High Environmental Quality..." 2007).

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28 Certification and Policies Sustainable building policy requires all construction to Airport joined the HQE (High Quality Environmental) achieve the highest practical LEED certification. Association in 2005; 14 target areas earmarked Sustainable design guidelines used for all design and for action, broken down into eco-building, construction projects. eco-management, comfort, and health. Use of natural light. Building certified to Silver level of LEED (Leadership LEED for all new buildings. in Energy and Environmental Design)--the U.S. green building rating system. Green Building Practices Policy to assess feasibility of LEED for all new build- Grid-connected solar photovoltaic panels. ings and major renovations. Forest Stewardship Council certified wood. Developing green building policy to guide future reno- Ground landscaping composed of native plants and vations and development. trees grown in local nurseries specifically for the City's green building ordinance specifies that con- airport. struction projects larger than 15,000 square feet should Green building concepts incorporated into designs and achieve a minimum LEED rating of Silver. remodels, although the airport does not necessarily Terminal building design is 30% more efficient than seek certification. required under federal law--high-performance glaz- ing, enhanced daylight, energy-efficient fixtures, At Toronto Pearson International Airport, the New Fire efficient entryways, efficient ventilation, outside air and Emergency Services Training Institute (FESTI) at economizer, energy management and control system, the airport is certified to a LEED Silver level. variable-flow chilled and hot water systems.