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29 Chapter SEVEN Economic Practices The air transportation system provides for the cost-effective tal, economic, and social sustainability. Using the manage- transportation of goods and services and is a significant ment performance scale (see Appendix B), respondents engine of the U.S. economy. About 75% of long-distance completed a self-assessment on how well they believed their travelers and 42% of medium-distance travelers prefer air airport was managing environmental, social, and economic travel. The air transportation industry requires large capital sustainability with regard to policies and programs, perfor- investments to provide services--airport capacity is one of mance monitoring and reporting, and incentives and aware- the most significant issues facing civil aviation, as building ness. On the management performance scale, 1 represents new airports can be more expensive than expanding avail- little or no awareness of the issue and no policies or pro- able facilities. Policymakers must project the impact of their grams in place; and 5 represents high awareness, account- policies in the presence of long lead times (Mezhepoglu and ability and long-term planning, and incentives aligned with Sherry 2006). performance. Figure 14 shows the results of the survey respondents' self-assessment. Examples of economic sustainability includes local hir- ing and purchasing policies, charitable donations, long-term and life-cycle financial considerations, research to develop sustainable technologies, and incentives to encourage sus- Ratings 1 2 3 4 5 tainable behavior. Responsible and successful economic U.S. Airports performance is not just a key indicator of business practice Non-Hub (1) but of the long-term sustainability of an organization. Small Hub (2) 50% 50% Table 12 provides a summary of the economic practices Medium Hub (4) 25% 75% % Respondents most frequently cited by survey respondents from U.S. Large Hub (9) 22% 22% 33% 22% and non-U.S. airports. For a detailed list of economic sus- Non-U.S. Airports tainability practices reported by survey respondents, see Continental Appendix D. 60^ 20% Europe (5) Asia (1) Economic Sustainability Self-Assessment United 100% Kingdom (1) Participants in the survey were asked to provide an overall Canada (2) 50% 50% rating of the performance of sustainability at their airports FIGURE 14 Economic sustainability self-assessment of with respect to the triple-bottom-line issues of environmen- respondents. Table 12 Survey respondents from U.S. and non-U.S. Airports who provided information on economic practices at their airport Non-U.S. U.S. Airport Respondents Airport Economic Practice Respondents Large Hub Medium Hub Small Hub Non-Hub Ec1. Hiring and Purchasing Ec2. Community Contributions Ec3. Quantifying Sustainability Ec4. Contribution to Research and Development Ec5. Incentivizing Sustainable Behavior