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30 U.S. Airports organization, but also to society and the economy, whilst minimizing damage to the environment ("Procuring the Respondents from large hub U.S. airports assessed their Future..." 2006). Local and environmentally responsible economic management performance between 2 and 5, procurement can have a wider range of benefits than imme- with a preference for 4. This rating is similar to their self- diately apparent; for example, the environmental benefits of assessment for environmental performance. Respondents using recycled materials and the social benefits of reducing from medium airports mostly ranked their airports at 4, unemployment. compared with the highest ranking for environmental performance at 5. Respondents from the two small hub The survey sought to identify specific practices in the airports assessed the management of their economic sus- following focus areas of economic sustainability: tainability practices at 1 and 3, the same rating they gave their environmental performance. The non-hub respondent Local hiring by airports and tenants. rated their airport as having better economic sustainabil- Local purchasing by airports and tenants. ity practices than their environmental practices (4 rather Purchase of goods and services from local and envi- than 3). ronmentally friendly businesses. Non-U.S. Airports Survey respondents listed the following practices related to local hiring or purchasing at their airports. The survey respondents from continental European and UK airports assessed the management of their economic Local Hiring sustainability practices as stronger than the management Attract business by promoting regional assets. of their environmental practices. The respondent from Asia Contracts have Medium/Women/Disadvantaged rated economic sustainability performance at 2, compared Business Enterprise requirements. with a rating of 4 for environmental performance. The First Source Hiring Program requires tenants and con- respondents from Canadian airports rated management tractors to give the airport impact area (local commu- of environmental practices higher 5 than management of nities) the first opportunity to fill airport jobs. economic sustainability (3 and 4). A Canadian respondent Local job fairs. noted that their airport is a not-for-profit organization. "Means Business Program" helps local small business (See box for explanation of Canada's National Airports owners get better access to airport purchasing dollars System.) and share in the revenue the airport generates for the regional economy. Preference for local businesses and contractors in pub- The 26 airports that currently handle 94% of air lic solicitations. travelers in Canada comprise a network known as Airport jobs represent 11% of jobs for the county. the National Airports System (NAS). The system includes airports in the national, provincial, and Local and Responsible Purchasing territorial capitals, as well as those that handle at least 200,000 passengers a year. In 1994, the Green procurement in place whenever possible and Canadian government introduced the National Airports reasonable. Policy, in which it retained ownership of the 26 NAS ISO 14001 EMS gives preference for other ISO airports but leased them to local airport authorities businesses. who are responsible for financial and operational Social and environmental sustainability criteria are management. The objective of this policy was to allow incorporated in requests for proposals. locally owned and operated airports to function in a "Business Development Opportunities in Economic more commercial and cost-efficient manner, be more Communities" project aims to analyze the territo- responsive to local needs, and be better able to match rial impact of purchases made by the major airport levels of service to local demands ("National Airports principals and make airport-specific purchases more Policy" 2007). visible. Airport purchases services from contractors who use environmentally friendly practices; for example, Local and Responsible Economic Practices waste hauling contractors who use alternative fuel vehicles. "Sustainable procurement is a process whereby organi- Diversity study identified areas to improve contract zations meet their needs for goods, services, works, and opportunities for Medium and Women Business utilities in a way that achieves value for money on a whole Enterprises. life basis in terms of generating benefits not only to the City regulations on small business enterprises.