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32 To understand how airports value sustainability prac- ronmental, social, and economic sustainability topics. Sur- tices, the survey included questions on life-cycle costing, vey respondents cited the following examples: quantifying financial and nonfinancial savings, and fore- casting potential future costs. Survey respondents listed the Aircraft emissions measurement, monitoring, and following practices related to quantifying sustainability at modeling--the airport has its own lab that contrib- their airports: utes to research programs such as AIRPUR (an air- port emissions measurement project run by the French All new projects require life-cycle costing before Aerosace Lab ONERA). implementation. AERONET--European Commission network on air- Reductions in CO2 from onsite transportation and car- craft emission reduction technologies. sharing initiatives are quantified. Fund monitoring and conservation programs for Quantifying monetary and nonmonetary benefits endangered species. is part of every business case and net present value Airport plans to collaborate with state energy and evaluation. environmental agencies. Every project is reviewed with prudent commercial Airport is forming a regional coalition of similar-sized and life-cycle analyses before approval. organizations to benchmark each other's sustainability The 20-year master plan uses a sustainability matrix to initiatives. assess possible projects. Life-cycle cost analysis is performed for all new con- Seventeen of the 25 survey respondents said that their air- struction projects. port does not currently invest in economic or social sustain- Emissions reductions from energy savings are ability research. quantified. Diverted waste from landfill through waste manage- ment initiatives is quantified. Incentives for Sustainable Behavior Water efficiency is quantified as water reductions per passenger. An incentive is something that "incites or has a tendency to The success of wastewater treatment is measured incite to determination or action" (Merriam-Webster 2007). as the percentage improvement above regulated By providing incentives, airports can motivate stakehold- levels. ers to change their behavior and contribute toward success- Capital projects are required to predict operating and ful implementation of sustainability practices. The survey maintenance costs. sought to identify any incentives provided by airports to The asset management program considers energy influence the behavior of tenants, employees, and passen- costs. gers. Respondents listed the following incentives for sus- Annual objectives and targets include quantification of tainability practices at their airports. nonmonetary benefits. Financial Incentives Sustainability Research and Development Emissions and noise charging, separate pricing for low-sound-classified planes. Sustainability research and development is a way for airports Choice of waste disposal contractor made with the aim to improve existing, environmental, social, and economic of encouraging recovery of separated waste materials practices, and discover new ones. Research and development as much as possible--each tenant can choose number can also benefit airports through the implementation of new of waste types to separate at the source, and the cost technologies, processes, and ideas. reflects the degree of separation. Airport subsidizes public transport buses and bus rapid transit to all terminals. Los Angeles International Airport funds research Commuter rebate program provides financial incentive projects on air quality impacts through the University to carpool/bus/bike to work. of Southern California and UCLA. A full-time community benefits coordinator/liaison works with local stakeholders on this project. Hong Kong International Airport has an annual green office competition for airport staff, as well as an environmental best practice competition among airport The survey queried respondents on the extent to which business partners (see Figure 16). their airports invest in research and development into envi-

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33 Non-Financial Incentives The Environmental Club aims to raise employee and tenant awareness. During National Week of Sustainable Development the airport developed leaflets to inform stakeholders about good environmental practices. Website (accessible by all tenants) created to raise employee and manager awareness. Airport has a strong collaboration with public transport companies (bus) to improve public transport network. Separate waste receptacles are available in the termi- nal building for recyclables. FIGURE 16Sustainability incentives at Hong Kong International Airport.