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35 U.S. Airports The synthesis survey sought to identify airport practices that maintain and enhance relationships with stakeholder Management of social sustainability practices at the two groups. Twelve example groups internal and external to the small hub airports was rated the same as environmental and airport were listed to prompt survey respondents. Respon- economic practices (3 and 1). Fifty percent of medium airport dents cited the following practices at their airports. respondents rated their airport's social sustainability manage- ment at 1, compared with higher assessments for economic Community/Neighborhood Groups and environmental sustainability management. One medium Community programs such as caring for the elderly airport respondent did not provide a self-assessment of social and organic farming. sustainability performance. Respondents from large airports Area advisory committee includes a number of com- rated their airports between 2 and 5, in a similar pattern to munity members and meets each month. their ratings for economic and environmental performance. Bimonthly Noise Roundtable with community members. Non-U.S. Airports Airlines Respondents from non-U.S. airports generally rated manage- Strategic plan undertaken with main airline includes ment of social sustainability practices at their airports lower an important chapter on sustainable development. than they rated environmental and economic practices. Only Airline operating committee meets monthly with three of five respondents from continental Europe rated their airlines. airports at 4 or 5 in this area, compared with four of five for environmental and economic practices. Twenty percent of Transport Bodies these respondents rated their airport's performance at 2, and Member of and active participant in ACI. one respondent did not provide any information. Federal, State/Regional, Local Government A UK respondent rated social sustainability practices at Regular communication with local government. the airport at 3, the same as environmental practices. The Canadian airports both rated their social sustainability per- Tenants formance at 2, compared with 5 for environmental sustain- Launched Environmental Club to allow airport tenants to ability and 3 or 4 for economic sustainability. voice environmental concerns and make suggestions. Respondents justified their ratings with comments such Airport Operator Employees as the following: Projects can be initiated by the staff or the local community. "Noise mitigation and residential purchase program is rated at a 5 level" (large U.S. airport, self-assessment Local Businesses = 5). Regular meetings with groups of business partners. "We do a lot, but program and policy not formalized" Quarterly forums with local businesses. (non-U.S. airport, self-assessment = 2). Passengers Customer service office searches for ways to improve ser- Stakeholder Relationships vices and systems to meet customer needs and desires. Customer comment cards with prepaid postage avail- Maintaining good relationships with stakeholders can help able at convenient locations. Airport director reads all airport operators better understand airport impacts, articu- cards and responds weekly. late values and strategies, facilitate regulatory approval pro- cesses, participate in measurement and reporting, avert or resolve a crisis, and contribute to the local community ("The The Vancouver Airport Authority has demonstrated its commitment to ongoing stakeholder engagement Importance of Stakeholder Engagement" 2007). through annual public meetings and reports, airport tours, media interviews, and presentations. Stakeholders Stakeholder engagement is not unidirectional and linear; are invited to participate in community forums to discuss rather, it is an interactive and iterative system that feeds into issues that affect the region, especially noise pollution and enriches itself. It is an ongoing process, not an event and environmental management. A comprehensive (Amaeshi and Crane 2005). By considering the needs and 20-year master plan is being developed with extensive interests of stakeholders, airport operators can manage, input from community, industry, and government implement, and continually improve relationships; enhance representatives (see Figure 18). reputation; and minimize conflict.