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36 Airport respondents listed the following employee prac- tices at their airports: Endorsed equal opportunity agreement and seeks to achieve the AFAQ AFNOR equality label (see box); introducing paternity leave and intercompany day nurseries; held a seminar on the theme of equal work opportunities as a factor in performance. Performance-related pay available only to nonunion employees. Airport's Equal Employment Opportunity, Diversity and Training Office promotes employee recognition and development, and sponsors employee appreciation day. FIGURE 18 Example of enhancing stakeholder relationships Employee awards recognize merit, safety, security, by Vancouver International Airport Authority. length of service, valor, and undertaking exceptional tasks not included in the normal course of duty. E-mail system on the airport's website receives First aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and auto- complaints; most are responded to the same day. matic external defibrillator training are offered free Improvements implemented on the basis of customer to all employees--classes are offered on all shifts to comments include family/companion restrooms, wheel- accommodate the 24-hour workforce. chair assistance, free assistance in parking garages for Health and wellness policy incorporates nutrition, cars with flats/dead batteries/no fuel, designated meeting exercise, and education to improve health and reduce points to eliminate greeter/traveler confusion, additional sick time. seating, dog relief areas for service animals and family Active safety committees have resulted in lower injury pets, foreign language line at information desk, e-mail rates. contact to the lost and found for overseas travelers, and Airport expanded the use of online computer-based baby changers in all restrooms, including men's. training to provide flexibility and promote efficient use of employee time. Other All employees fall under the city's employment guide- Annual corporate responsibility report based on stake- lines, including the equal opportunity and diversity holders, their demands and how the airport has built and retirement programs. relationships with stakeholders through its sustainable Airport has an onsite child care facility and subsidizes development strategy. child care for employees. The airport is in constant contact with all Airport offers performance-related pay and pay stakeholders. benchmarking. Airport has a public employee retirement program with Employee Practices and Procedures fixed benefits. Airport has a telecommuting policy. A high turnover rate can indicate employee uncertainty and dissatisfaction, or it may signal a fundamental change in the structure of the organization's core operations. The quality Transportation of benefits is a key factor in retaining employees ("What Is the Global Reporting Initiative?" 20002006). Sustainable transport includes all forms of transport that reduce congestion and minimize emissions of carbon diox- ide and other pollutants. Kaszewski and Sheate (2004) found The equality label (France) acknowledges equality and professional gender mix in a company and that stakeholders overwhelmingly supported a best practice its management. Certification is handled by an scenario for sustainable airport development that included a internationally recognized organization--AFAQ "green transportation plan." The UK Department for Trans- AFNOR and is based on the company's implemented port defines this as reducing traffic congestion and emis- gender equality policy. A commission composed of sions pollution, and developing effective partnerships among management, labor, and government representatives businesses, local authorities, and transport operators. advises AFAQ AFNOR. The label is granted for three years at a time, with an inspection at 18 months to Because this synthesis focuses on airports, the survey ensure that the company continues to satisfy the question for this topic refers to transportation that is under labeling criteria ("Equality Label Brochure" 2007). the influence of the airport operator (i.e., traveling to and

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37 from and within an airport); it does not include sustainable Ground services provide an excellent opportunity for transportation practices by individual airlines. Airports alternative fuel vehicles because of their limited range of require extensive transportation services, not just for pas- use, high daily mileage, long idle times, and frequent stops sengers but for employees, tenants, cargo, and associated ("Alternative Fuel..." 2001). Survey respondents cited the services. Because of the high traffic, airports are multimodal following practices in place at their airports related to alter- and can play a major role in influencing regional transpor- native fuel vehicles. tation practices, as well as creating their own alternatives to car travel. Examples of sustainable transportation might Clean and Alternative Fuel Vehicles include walking or cycling, public transport, car pooling, and alternative or cleaner fueled vehicles. Clean vehicles--approximately 30% of the vehicles are liquefied petroleum gas or electric. The survey asked respondents about the extent to which Sports facilities with lockers for staff; biking their airport was implementing public transportation and opportunities. cleaner transportation practices. Respondents cited the fol- Airport participates actively in the public debate to lowing sustainable transportation practices: implement a new rail link between the city and the airport. Public Transit Parking lot bus fleet is 100% CNG. Thirty-three CNG buses with more than 10,000,000 Bus, rail, and ferry transportation. miles traveled. New intra-airport passenger train. CNG stations on airport property. Significant investment ($300 million) into public light Second largest airport-based alternative fuel vehicle rapid transit line to airport. (AFV) program in the world--more than 600 AFVs. Built a train station and bus access. All shuttles have been converted to CNG or biodiesel. Employee rideshare program has received EPA's Gold Medal for the past two years--28% of employees Alleviating Road Congestion participate. Airport provides subsidized van pools. Survey respondents cited the following practices at their air- Airport offers free public transit passes to employees. ports to reduce road congestion: Global Compact best practice car sharing being devel- Sky Harbor Airport in Phoenix offers free transportation oped to reduce employees' use of cars; website allows between the terminals in shuttle buses fueled by communication about car sharing. CNG. The airport recently opened a Stage & Go cell Commuter rebate program provides financial incentive phone lot where drivers can wait in their vehicles, free of charge, while passengers deplane, pick up their to carpool/bus/bike to work. luggage, and walk out to the curb. This eliminates the High-occupancy vehicle (HOV) and airport priority need to circle the terminals (see Figure 19). lanes. Aggressive HOV goals being met through express bus services and transit to terminals. Airport subsidizes "flyaway project," in which passen- gers park in remote locations, check in (including lug- gage), and ride an HOV to the airport. Last year more than a million people used the two flyaway locations. Airport offers "cell phone lots" to reduce terminal circling. Active Transportation Management Association facili- tates ride matching, van pooling incentives, and transit subsidies. Employees are charged for parking. Airport is active in transportation planning to mini- mize congestion. Survey respondents cited the following practices related to FIGURE 19Sustainable transportation at Sky Harbor Airport pedestrian and cycling facilities at their airports. (Phoenix).