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ACRP Airport cooperative Research Program Synthesis 10 Airport Sustainability Practices A Synthesis of Airport Practice

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS JAMES WILDING Chair: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Independent Consultant Vice Chair: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley VICE CHAIR Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board JEFF HAMIEL MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg MEMBERS JOHN D. BOWE, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson JAMES CRITES DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern DallasFt. Worth International Airport Corporation, Norfolk, VA RICHARD DE NEUFVILLE WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Massachusetts Institute of Technology DAVID S. EKERN, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, UCG Associates University of Virginia, Charlottesville JOHN K. DUVAL JEFFREY W. HAMIEL, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Beverly Municipal Airport EDWARD A. (NED) HELME, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC STEVE GROSSMAN WILL KEMPTON, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Oakland International Airport SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City TOM JENSEN MICHAEL D. MEYER, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia National Safe Skies Alliance Institute of Technology, Atlanta CATHERINE M. LANG MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Federal Aviation Administration Arlington GINA MARIE LINDSEY NEIL J. PEDERSEN, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Los Angeles World Airports PETE K. RAHN, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City CAROLYN MOTZ SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Hagerstown Regional Airport TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR RICHARD TUCKER ROSA CLAUSELL ROUNTREE, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Huntsville International Airport Atlanta HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., EX OFFICIO MEMBERS St. Louis, MO SABRINA JOHNSON C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Texas, Austin RICHARD MARCHI LINDA S. WATSON, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Airports Council International-- STEVE WILLIAMS, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR North America LAURA McKEE EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Air Transport Association of America THAD ALLEN (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC HENRY OGRODZINSKI JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT National Association of State Aviation REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Officials Smyrna, GA MELISSA SABATINE PAUL R. BRUBAKER, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Executives Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. SEAN T. CONNAUGHTON, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC SECRETARY EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS JOHN H. HILL, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC CARL T. JOHNSON, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC NICOLE R. NASON, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT JAMES RAY, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT JAMES S. SIMPSON, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT ROBERT A. STURGELL, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2008. *Membership as of May 2008.

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Airport cooperative Research Program ACRP Synthesis 10 Airport Sustainability Practices A Synthesis of Airport Practice Consultants FIONA BERRY, SARAH GILLHESPY, and JEAN ROGERS Arup North America, Ltd. San Francisco, California S ubject A rea Aviation Research Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Transportation Research Board Washington, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 10 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transpor- Project 11-03, Topic S02-02 tation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international ISSN 1935-9187 commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system connects ISBN 978-0-309-09809-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2008906006 with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the 2008 Transportation Research Board role of state and local governments that own and operate most air- ports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principle means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solu- COPYRIGHT PERMISSION tions to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The herein. ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the success- will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program and Transit method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in Cooperative Research Program. The ACRP undertakes research and the document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. design, construction, maintenance, operations, safety, security, policy, For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary par- ticipants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the NOTICE ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport Co-operative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry orga- Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research nizations such as the Airports Council InternationalNorth America Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), program concerned is of national importance and appropriate with respect the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. the Air Transport Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport com- The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly munity; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the gov- competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines erning board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, initiating the program. while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of air- they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the port professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and U.S. Department of Transportation. research organizations. Each of these participants has different inter- Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the techni- ests and responsibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative cal committee according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing research effort. Board of the National Research Council. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodi- cally but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by National Research Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels (sponsor of the ACRP) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade and expected products. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements Published reports of the and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, are available from: ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, ser- Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW vice providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national- shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initia- tive, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sci- ences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and prog- ress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdis- ciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation depart- ments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 11-03 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research CHAIR Programs BURR STEWART CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Port of Seattle Research Programs ROBERT E. DAVID, Senior Program Officer MEMBERS EILEEN DELANEY, Director of Publications GARY C. CATHEY California Department of Transportation ACRP SYNTHESIS STAFF KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Unison Consulting, Inc. Programs BERTA FERNANDEZ JON M. WILLIAMS, Associate Director, IDEA and Synthesis Landrum & Brown Studies JULIE KENFIELD GAIL STABA, Senior Program Officer Jacobs DON TIPPMAN, Editor CAROLYN MOTZ CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant Hagerstown Regional Airport TOPIC PANEL CHRISTINE GERENCHER, Transportation Research Board FAA LIAISON RUSTY T. HODAPP, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport LORI PAGNANELLI Board ROGER A. JOHNSON, Los Angeles World Airports ACINORTH AMERICA LIAISON CHERYL KOSHUTA, Port of Portland (OR)/Portland Interna- RICHARD MARCHI tional Airport RANDY J. McGILL, Greater Toronto Airports Authority TRB LIAISON SAM MEHTA, San Francisco International Airport CHRISTINE GERENCHER JONATHAN RUBIN, University of Maine HOLLAND YOUNG, Jacobs Consultancy ED MELISKY, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) HOWARD AYLESWORTH, Aerospace Industries Association of America (Liaison) JESSICA STEINHILBER, Airports Council InternationalNorth America (Liaison)

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FOREWORD Airport operators, service providers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Coop- erative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, "Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This synthesis study is intended to inform airport operators, stakeholders, and policy By Gail Staba, makers about a range of airport sustainability practices gathered from a literature review and web-based survey. It specifically targets airport operators and provides a snapshot of Senior Program Officer airport sustainability practices across the triple bottom line of environmental, economic, Transportation and social issues. Research Board Information used in this study was acquired through a review of the literature and interviews with airport operators and industry experts. Fiona Berry, Sarah Gillhespy, and Jean Rogers, of Arup North America, Ltd, San Fran- cisco, California, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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Contents 1 SUMMARY 3chapter one Introduction Audience and Dissemination, 3 Background, 3 TRB Panel, 3 Definitions, 3 Issues Addressed, 4 Report Content, 5 6 CHAPTER TWO METHOD Literature Review, 6 Survey, 6 8 Chapter Three Survey Response Survey Respondents, 8 Airport Authorities, 8 Geographic Location, 8 Airport Size, 8 9 Chapter FOUR DRIVERS, PRIORITIES, AND BARRIERS TO SUSTAINABILITY PRACTICES Existing and Future Drivers for Sustainability, 9 Sustainability Priorities, 10 Barriers to Implementation, 12 13 Chapter FIVE ORGANIZATIONAL Governance of Sustainability Roles and Responsibilities, 13 Training, 13 Sustainability Organizations, 15 Public Reporting, 15 17 Chapter SIX Environmental Practices Environmental Sustainability Self-Assessment, 17 Measurement and Monitoring, 18 Water, 19 Air Quality, 20 Climate Change, 21 Land Use, 22 Biodiversity, 23 Materials, 24 Waste Management, 24 Noise Pollution and Aesthetics, 25 Energy, 26 Green Building, 27

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29 Chapter SEVEN Economic Practices Economic Sustainability Self-Assessment, 29 Local and Responsible Economic Practices, 30 Community Contributions, 31 Valuing Sustainability, 31 Sustainability Research and Development, 32 Incentives for Sustainable Behavior, 32 34 Chapter EIGHT Social Practices Social Sustainability Self-Assessment, 34 Stakeholder Relationships, 35 Employee Practices and Procedures, 36 Transportation, 36 Accessibility, 38 Local Identity, Culture, and Heritage, 38 Indoor Environmental Quality, 39 Employee Well-Being, 39 Passenger Well-being, 40 41 Chapter NINE Conclusions 43 REFeRENCES 46 APPENDIX A Airport Sustainability Practices Survey 93 APPENDIX B Management Performance Scale 94 APPENDIX C List of 25 Airports Responding to Survey 95 APPENDIX D List of Sustainability Practices Captured by Survey