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25 Basic familiarity with signal processing, Calibration Center Operator Qualifications Automotive maintenance, and Computer skills. Training requirements differ slightly from one calibration center to another. For example, Pennsylvania calibration In addition to those skills, FWD operators should be able center technicians are trained by Cornell University and to clearly communicate with the office and take direction. are certified by MACTEC. The calibration center in Minne- Furthermore, FWD operators should be exposed to data pro- sota, on the other hand, has not yet implemented an in-house cessing and analysis techniques. With these skills, operators training program, but it plans to do so in the future. can spot erroneous data before the errors have a chance to propagate, thus saving agencies time and money. TRAINING CERTIFICATIONS Falling Weight Deflectometer Data Analysts Qualifications Certificate programs for FWD operators and data analysts are rare. One state--South Carolina--and one FWD vendor-- Sixty-six percent of SHAs reported that they provide training Carl Bro--stated explicitly that a certification program is in to new FWD data analysts. Training duration mostly fell into place for FWD operators (Appendix B, Questions 70). The one of two responses; 31% stated 1 month or less of training South Carolina certificate is earned when a new operator was provided, and 27% stated that training was provided for rides "with a certified operator for a period of time to show 6 months. When asked for more details, six SHAs explicitly proficiency, and pass a test" (Appendix B, Questions 71). stated that training is provided on the job. Additionally, two states--Nevada and North Carolina--require new analysts to demonstrate proficiency, either by successfully completing Additional Training Opportunities data-gathering operations under supervision or by passing a Falling Weight Deflectometer User's Group test (Appendix B, Questions 66, 6869). Three SHAs stated that vendors provided at least some Sixty-one percent of SHAs surveyed send representatives training. New FWD equipment purchases include training to the annual FWDUG meeting (Appendix B, Questions sessions. Details of these training sessions are described in 72). The FWDUG was started in 1992 as a forum to "share Table 6. information and experiences in the practical aspects of FWD TABLE 6 FWD VENDOR-PROVIDED DATA ANALYST TRAINING SUMMARY FWD Vendor Training Duration Concepts Covered Carl Bro 5 days Introduction to road design software, including data import, quality check, and calculation Basic pavement design theory Presentation of calculation results Basic troubleshooting Dynatest -- Included with purchase of new FWD equipment Refresher courses available for newly hired operators Smoothing User manual overview Support contact information JILS -- -- KUAB -- Development of a FWD test pattern Data acquisition and data reduction Pavement section definition Load and temperature normalization of data Back-calculation of layer moduli values Load transfer and void detection in PCC pavements Structural evaluation of existing pavements Determining remaining structural life and overlay thickness design Note: -- = no response given.

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26 testing and data analysis." Meetings are held once per year National Highway Institute in various cities across the United States. Free exchange of ideas is encouraged. Currently, Patricia Polish of the Nevada A division of FHWA, the National Highway Institute (NHI), DOT serves as the FWDUG's executive secretary. Meetings is a clearinghouse for highway construction and mainte- are typically held in October or November (FWD: Introduc- nance education materials. NHI currently does not offer a tion 2007). training course for FWD usage, but 85% of SHAs surveyed would support one. A course previously offered by NHI dis- cussed pavement deflection analysis, including FWD usage (Pavement Deflection Analysis 1994).