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O V E RV I E W O F T H E P O L I C Y I S S U E S 7 the National Ambient Air Quality Standards must be agement system (CMS). Additionally, in air quality completed on projects. There are sanctions for failure to nonattainment areas and TMAs, federal funds cannot be meet the requirements. used for projects that increase single-occupant vehicle A variety of transportation control measures (TCMs) capacities unless the project is part of a CMS. Strategies may be considered to help areas meet the conformity to address congestion must be incorporated into plans requirements. These measures include public transit and TIPs. improvements, traffic flow improvements, high- A wide variety of congestion management strategies occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, and shared-ride ser- may be considered and incorporated into a CMS. These vices. Other TCMs include bicycle and pedestrian strategies include travel demand management measures, facilities and flexible work schedules. Restrictions on traffic operational improvements, the use of HOV lanes, roads for use by buses or HOVs, restrictions on con- and public transportation improvements. Other tech- struction of roads for single-occupant vehicles, and trip- niques include the use of nonmotorized modes, conges- reduction ordinances may also be considered. tion pricing, growth management strategies, and access There are specific U.S. Environmental Protection management techniques. Still other strategies include Agency modeling requirements for MPOs in areas over incident management techniques, ITS applications, and 200,000 in population and for transportation manage- the possible addition of general-purpose lanes. ment agencies (TMAs). These areas must use network- There are also a number of new and emerging empha- based travel models, validated against peak and off-peak sis areas that may require special treatment in the mod- counts. The model must be analyzed for reasonableness eling process. Examples of these emerging emphasis and must use the best available land use, population, and areas include environmental streamlining, nonmotorized network assumptions. Future land uses must be consis- transportation, ITS, private financing, pricing, and secu- tent with the transportation system. In addition, emis- rity. It is important to integrate the transportation and sions estimates must be based on peak and off-peak environmental planning processes to provide more accu- volumes and speeds. Zone-to-zone travel impedances rate and more detailed forecasts. must be used for distribution based on final assignment. Consideration of nonmotorized transportation is The network models must be sensitive to time, cost, and intended to better integrate bicycling and walking into other relevant factors. Finally, all assumptions and the transportation planning and project development results must be documented. mainstream. The Safe Routes to Schools program pro- These programs cover the basic requirements. There vides one example of this approach. ITS are becoming are other requirements depending on the type of trans- more widely deployed in metropolitan areas of all sizes. portation or transit improvement being considered and It is important to be able to model the travel demand the federal funding category. The Transit New Starts pro- effects of freeway management systems, arterial manage- gram provides one example of additional requirements ment systems, and traveler information systems. associated with a specific funding source. The Transit Private financing of different elements of the trans- New Starts program is a discretionary grant program. portation infrastructure and transportation operations is FTA must make choices among competing projects from being considered in many areas. Private investment firms various urban areas. Consequently, FTA has emphasized and banks have requirements for accurate travel demand the need for consistency across urban areas and the need forecasts and accurate revenue forecasts. Value pricing, for consistency in analytical approaches. The evaluation high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes, and managed lanes criteria for the New Starts program includes mobility are also being considered and implemented in some improvements, environmental benefits, operating effi- areas. The ability to model the effects of highway tolls, ciencies, cost-effectiveness, land use impacts, and a finan- transit fares, HOT lanes, and variable or dynamic tolls cial commitment on the part of the area. on travel demand is needed in these areas. Environmental justice represents another area that Transportation security is also a critical issue facing requires special consideration. Environmental justice metropolitan areas today. Elements of transportation requires an analysis of the impacts of a project or plan on security include prevention, protection, response, and minority and low-income communities and populations. recovery. Examples of major federally directed studies This analysis is needed to ensure that minority and low- include evacuation planning for natural and man-made income groups do not receive a disproportionate per- disasters and flu pandemic planning. The ability to centage of the negative impacts from a project. These model evacuation routes, as well as sheltering in place, is analyses require the ability to assess the impacts of trans- needed. portation improvements on specific minority and low- Obtaining and maintaining the data needed for accu- income populations. rate travel demand forecasting continues to be an issue MPOs in areas with populations over 200,000 and in all urban areas. Much of the data used in travel MPOs classified as TMAs must have a congestion man- demand forecasting is old and outdated. Further, much