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32 I N N O VAT I O N S I N T R AV E L D E M A N D M O D E L I N G , V O L U M E 1 ment is being developed. Issues with aggregate zone sys- simulator is under development for integration with tems are being addressed. These issues include inaccura- PCATS and DEBNetS. cies introduced by spatial aggregation and limited A very simple model of pedestrian shopping behav- applications to nonmotorized transport analysis. Con- ior has been developed. It is difficult to predict a "sudden siderable work is focused on overcoming limitations of or spur-of-the-moment" shopping event. A simple nested zonal aggregation. logit model structure is being developed to address spur- PCATS has been applied to the central portion of of-the-moment shopping behavior. Elements, such as the the City of Kyoto. The rectangular area is approximately attraction of a store by floor space and number of 13 km (eastwest) and 11 km (northsouth). The area employees; environmental information, such as traffic contains approximately 1.4 million 10-m 10-m volumes around the store; and information on the indi- parcels. A little over half of these parcels, or approxi- vidual, such as available time, are included. The pedes- mately 740,000, qualify as destination opportunities. trian simulator is being developed to consider The analysis examined alternative planning measures. individuals' economic activities in stores. Integrating the These alternatives included a downtown automobile- pedestrian simulator into PCATS will enable the evalua- restricted zone, a reduction in transit fares, a combina- tion of transportation planning measures at a microscale tion of both the automobile-restricted zone and transit or individual level. fare reduction, and a do-nothing option. The PCATS In summary, a number of activities have been com- graphical display system can be used to highlight the pleted integrating PCATS with DEBNetS. Activities are alternatives. The application results show that automo- underway related to continuous representation of the bile trips decrease significantly and transit trips increase timespace domain and interactions among household slightly with the automobile-restricted zone. Transit trips members. A dynamic network simulator is fully inte- increase slightly and automobile trips decrease slightly grated. The pedestrian movement simulator for shopping with the fare-reduction option. The combined alterna- activity is in use. Complete re-engineering of the software tive has the highest impact of reducing automobile trips is underway to make it more robust and to address com- and increasing transit trips. puting power issues. Enhanced visualization and anima- Pedestrian movement simulation represents tion displays are also being developed. There is extensive another area of research. To evaluate the allocation of application to policy analysis at the microscale. facilities and transportation policies in commercial areas, it is necessary to analyze the behavior of pedestrians in more detail. Elements to examine include street choice, Konstadinos Goulias, University of California, Santa shop choice, and consumption patterns. A pedestrian Barbara, moderated this session.