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BREAKOUT SESSION Emerging Modeling Considerations Sivaramakrishnan Srinivasan, University of Florida Chandra Bhat, University of Texas at Austin Jessica Guo, University of Wisconsin, Madison Arun Kuppam, Cambridge Systematics, Inc. Maren Outwater, Cambridge Systematics, Inc. Rob Hranac, Cambridge Systematics, Inc. COMPANIONSHIP FOR LEISURE ACTIVITIES: AN assessing demand management actions such as early EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS USING THE AMERICAN release, compressed work weeks, and telecommuting. TIME USE SURVEY These strategies can alter travel patterns of individuals not directly impacted by the action. These secondary Sivaramakrishnan Srinivasan and Chandra Bhat impacts are missed by individual-based models. Other practical considerations include the impact Sivaramakrishnan Srinivasan discussed the use of the of joint activities on travel distances, travel duration, and Census Bureau's American Time Use Survey (ATUS) to time of travel. Individuals may be more willing to travel examine joint activity and travel trends. He described longer distances for activities pursued jointly with family possible impacts of joint activities and travel on travel and friends. These trends have implications for air qual- demand forecasting models, information on the ATUS ity and congestion. Additional travel for pickup and concerning joint activities with household and non- drop-off of companions may not be captured effectively household members, and possible enhancements to the if joint activities are not modeled. Social activities may modeling process. Volume 2 includes a paper on the not be as flexible as they have traditionally been treated. topic.1 The following points were covered in his Further practical considerations include the impli- presentation. cations of the increasing use of information and commu- nication technologies, which may influence the A number of practical considerations relate to mod- substitution of virtual socializing for social travel and the eling joint activities and travel. For example, vehicle- facilitation of travel coordination. Interest in modeling occupancy levels are determined by joint activity-travel travel during weekends and for special events further decisions and the ability of individuals to synchronize highlights the need for explicitly accommodating joint their travel. As a result, the modeling of joint activity- activity and travel patterns in travel models. travel is needed to evaluate the vehicular travel in the sys- The overall goal of the study is to contribute to the tem and policies related to high-occupancy vehicle and empirical understanding of activities and travel pursued by high-occupancy toll lanes, responses to carpooling incen- individuals jointly with household and nonhousehold tives, and other related programs. It is also needed for members. Study objectives included examining the content of travel that is pursued jointly, household versus non- 1 household companions for joint episodes, and variations See Srinivasan, S., and C. R. Bhat. Companionship for Leisure Activities: An Empirical Analysis Using the American Time Use by activity type and by day of the week. Three types of Survey. In Conference Proceedings 42: Innovations in Travel Demand leisure activities were examined and the impacts of demo- Modeling, Volume 2: Papers, Transportation Research Board of the graphic characteristics, activity episode characteristics, and National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2008, pp. 129136. day of the week on companion choice were assessed. 45