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T H E F U T U R E O F T R AV E L B E H AV I O R A N D D ATA C O L L E C T I O N 61 an individual's personal world, and technologies for con- and the activity spaces. Other potential research ques- ducting surveys. The following points were covered in tions focus on techniques to measure the personal world his presentation. and mobility biographies and on assessing changes in the transportation systems and the social costs associated A number of trends can be identified relating to with these changes. transportation, travel, and telecommunications in The personal world may include local, national, and Switzerland. The number of people or locations that can international transportation links. One possible approach be reached within 1 hour of travel time on the roadway to measure an individual's personal world focuses on the system in Switzerland has quadrupled in the 50 years personal world as a mental map and an expectation space. from 1950 to 2000. This trend has "shrunk" the coun- Potential techniques to measure these elements include try. The trend in the real cost of telecommunications has sketching, think-aloud protocols, and spatial tasks. The declined dramatically over the past 70 years. The real personal world may also be thought of in terms of the cost of driving an automobile has also declined, although activity space of visited locations. Potential techniques to it is difficult to believe. Switzerland has experienced the measure activity space include diaries and Global Posi- suburbanization trend. Since 1980, the catchment areas tioning System tracing. Tracing by other techniques, such of the largest 10 cities have increased in size. The fore- as payment methods, closed-circuit television, and tele- cast is for continued suburbanization and the overlap- phone and computer use, raises privacy issues. ping or growing together of some regions. Travel surveys have been used to collect information A number of elements can be used to help explain on individuals' trips and travel patterns. For example, a 6- travel behavior at the microscopic level. These elements week travel diary of a 24-year-old single woman, employed include the generalized cost of the route-mode-location full time, reported a total of 216 trips. Possible techniques alternative, as well as budgets and longer-term commit- for collecting information on social network geographies ments. Other elements include values, attitudes, and include name generators and interpreters, diary-based lifestyles by sociodemographics, an individual's personal prompting, and tracing contacts through e-mail, letters, world or mental map, and an individual's social network telephone records, and other technologies. Obviously there membership. Individuals are influenced by these ele- are privacy concerns associated with the use of these tech- ments, which are not easily captured in travel diaries and nologies. Measuring social content will also require new other survey methods. Examining methods to obtain questions on travel surveys to obtain information on the information on these elements is important to help individuals participating in the travel and activity and who advance activity-based travel models and other new fore- is paying. Questions to obtain information on when the casting techniques. trip and activity were planned, who was responsible for A number of elements might be considered in the making the arrangements, and if the activity has been generalized cost of a route-mode-destination alternative. undertaken previously are also needed. It is also important These elements include the time spent traveling, includ- to obtain information on pets being taken on trips. One ing schedule delays relative to the intended arrival time, study found that a dog altered the travel behavior of a monetary expenditures, the time spent at the location by household. It is also important to obtain information on type, activity expenditures, and the social content. Some repetitive activities and trips, such as work, and infrequent of these elements address comfort and risk, while others or new activities and trips. Experience with the initial sur- are decision and time frame relevant. Including ques- veys indicated a 10% response rate for the long-duration tions in surveys to obtain information on these elements travel diaries and a 10% response rate to the social net- would be beneficial. For example, the risks associated work interviews, with the use of incentives on both the with being late on trips for some activities may be higher diary and the survey. A 15% response rate was obtained on than for others. mobility biographies without motivational calls, whereas a Considering individuals as "network actors" in a 30% response rate was obtained with motivational calls. dynamic social context represents one possible approach. No difference in travel and trip behavior was detected An individual's personal world is influenced by his or her between the mobility biographies completed with and background and learning. Household location, social net- without the motivational calls. work geography, and mobility tools are linked to an indi- A number of further efforts are being pursued and vidual's personal world. One individual's personal world considered. These activities include semiautomatic is linked to the personal worlds of others through social extraction of data from e-mails and other written traces, capital, which includes elements related to stock of joint experiments with social content questions in travel sur- abilities and shared histories and commitments. veys and diaries, and integration of social network ge- This concept raises a number of new research ques- ographies and mobility biographies. Experiments with tions. These questions relate to the ability to measure the activity and travel summary questionnaires represent social content of travel, the social network of geography, another future effort.