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62 I N N O VAT I O N S I N T R AV E L D E M A N D M O D E L I N G , V O L U M E 1 DATA-ORIENTED TRAVEL BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS the location, time, and other characteristics are recorded BASED ON PROBE PERSON SYSTEMS automatically and transmitted to the server. Position data are automatically recorded every 20 seconds while the Eiji Hato and Ryuichi Kitamura participant is traveling. A participant presses the end key on the cellular telephone upon arrival at his or her desti- Eiji Hato discussed the probe person survey concept to nation. The characteristics of the trip are automatically obtain travel behavior data for activity-based models. recorded in a web diary system, which the participant can He described the concept, possible approaches for a edit at a later time. The software for MoALs uses Brew. mobile activity logger (MoAL), and pilot tests of these Oracle and Microsoft are used for the online analytical applications in Japan. Appendix B contains a paper on processing and the Internet information system. this topic. The following points were covered in his The MoAL system was tested in Japan over a 3- presentation. year period beginning in 2003 as part of the Matsuyama Probe Person Panel (MPPP) survey. The survey included Individual travel patterns vary on a day-to-day three waves. The MPPP is a panel-type survey, with a basis. Although much travel, such as commuting to work successive diary system. Each survey period covered or school, is repetitive, other travel is highly variable approximately 1 month, and new panels were added in depending on activities and needs. Travel surveys are the second and the third waves. Wave 1 of the MPPP used to obtain information on trip origins and destina- covered 4 weeks in 2003, Wave 2 included 5 weeks in tions, time of travel, trip purpose, and mode. More 2004, and Wave 3 covered 4 weeks in 2006. Each wave extensive information on individual travel patterns is included approximately 1 million records. The partici- needed for activity-based models. Information on activ- pant withdrawal rate was approximately 2% in Wave 1 ity location, activity duration, travel route, changes in and 9% in Wave 2. Measures were taken to protect per- travel due to external conditions, and other trip charac- sonal information. teristics is of use in activity-based models. The MPPP results were compared with those of the A number of survey methods are available to col- national transportation census and person trip survey, lect travel behavior information. Possible techniques which both cover 1 day. The MPPP results record higher include traditional questionnaire surveys and travel numbers of trips. The average number of trips for one diaries, web-based surveys and diaries, probe person sur- participant increased from 3.6 in the 2003 MPPP to 3.8 veys, and surveys using multiple sensors. Each method in the 2004 MPPP, while the trip omission rate declined. has advantages and disadvantages, as well as cost A limitation of the MoALs approach is that partic- implications. ipants must enter and edit their trip activity information. The probe person survey technique is intended to Another limitation relates to the accuracy of GPS in some ensure accurate travel records by determining spacetime areas and under some conditions. A second approach, position using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and called Behavioral Context Addressable Loggers in the reducing recording omissions through timely reporting Shell (BCALs), attempts to address these limitations. The of travel behavior by cellular telephone or the Internet. BCALs approach uses an automatic recording system This approach improves the efficiency of data coding with multisensors. The system obtains data on atmos- and improves the participation of survey respondents. pheric pressure, sound, position, acceleration, and other The probe person survey system takes advantage of elements. It may be possible to develop an automatic esti- recent market, social, and technology changes. First, mation model for behavioral contexts from these data mobile communication systems have penetrated the mar- without requiring any action on the part of participants. ket. Second, cellular telephones, computers, electronic The results from the three waves of the MoALs mail, and other communication technology are in wide- pilot indicate that the use of a GPS cellular telephone and spread use. Third, advances in GPS, sensors, and other web diary system enhances the accuracy of trip reporting technologies continue to occur. compared with traditional questionnaires. Location The probe person survey system uses cellular tele- positioning can be estimated accurately with 100 meters phones and web-based travel diaries to allow participants both indoors and outside. This approach is useful for to easily record trips and activities. Participants can also long-term detailed travel diaries. The BCALs approach check and correct travel records. Combining GPS and holds promise as a new survey method, but privacy other sensors with the system allows the automatic issues will need to be addressed. recording of key trip characteristics. The main elements of the system include GPS-equipped cellular telephones with specially designed software, a web-based travel diary Ram Pendyala, University of South Florida, and Kay system, and a data management server. A participant acti- Axhausen, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, moder- vates the cellular telephone at the start of a trip. Data on ated this session.