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C O M PA N I O N S H I P F O R L E I S U R E A C T I V I T I E S 131 possible to capture the impact of the time constraints of all activities of each type. The statistics are presented sepa- the individuals on the joint timeinvestment decisions. rately for weekdays and weekend days. It is important to However, it is possible to examine the impacts of other note that half of the ATUS sample corresponds to a week- factors such as individual and household socioeconomic end day (25% each for Saturday and Sunday) and half characteristics, day of the week, and seasonal factors. corresponds to a weekday (10% for each weekday). The results indicate that, during weekdays, 32.4% of all in-home episodes are joint whereas 35.3% of all the EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS weekend in-home episodes are joint. Among the in-home activity types, episodes for caregiving and socializing are This section, divided into two parts, presents an empirical by definition pursued jointly. On the other hand, sleep, analysis of the choice of companion types for activities personal care, and work or school episodes are solo. and travel. The first part examines all in-home, out-of- Among the remaining in-home activity types, eating and home, and travel activities. The objective is to quantify drinking and watching television are the ones that are the extent of joint activities and travel. The second part most likely to be pursued with other individuals. In the next focuses on the companion-type choices for out-of- context of in-home episodes, it is necessary to note that home leisure activities. Specifically, multinomial logit the survey question on the companion type was "Who (MNL) models are presented for the determination of the accompanied you in this activity or who was in the room companion types for three kinds of leisure activities. with you?" This implies that the above estimates of joint episodes could be skewed high because it is possible for other household members to be present in the same room OVERALL AGGREGATE ANALYSIS as the respondent even when he or she is pursuing the in- home activity independently. Table 2 presents descriptives on the number of episodes of The out-of-home activity episodes are significantly each activity type in the sample and the percentage of joint more likely to be joint compared with in-home episodes. TABLE 2 Descriptives on Total and Joint Episodes by Activity Type and Day of the Week Weekday Weekend Joint Joint Total Freq. % Total Freq. % In-home activities Sleep 37,338 0 0.00 38,770 0 0.00 Personal care 26,174 0 0.00 23,144 0 0.00 Household chores 45,823 14,111 30.79 44,255 16,332 36.90 Caregiving 14,490 14,490 100.00 10,812 10,812 100.00 Work and school related 4,406 0 0.00 3,148 0 0.00 Eating and drinking 23,316 13,721 58.85 23,382 15,394 65.84 Socializing 4,775 4,775 100.00 5,059 5,059 100.00 Television and nusic 24,741 11,884 48.03 25,577 13,840 54.11 Other leisure 19,036 5,310 27.89 18,006 5,748 31.92 Miscellaneous 6,239 2,536 40.65 5,851 2,667 45.58 Overall (in home) 206,338 66,827 32.39 198,004 69,852 35.28 Out-of-home activities Household and personal services 6,377 2,802 43.94 4,918 2,894 58.85 Serve passenger 6,458 6,458 100.00 3,451 3,451 100.00 Work and school 22,467 0 0.00 5,844 0 0.00 Shopping 11,162 5,045 45.20 13,815 8,539 61.81 Eating and drinking 10,718 7,927 73.96 9,407 8,356 88.83 Socializing 4,842 4,842 100.00 7,765 7,765 100.00 Passive leisure 5,472 3,661 66.90 5,300 4,298 81.09 Active leisure 2,857 1,470 51.45 2,715 1,869 68.84 Religious, civic, volunteer 1,911 1,417 74.15 5,230 4,364 83.44 Miscellaneous 7,066 4,162 58.90 6,053 4,329 71.52 Overall (out of home) 79,330 37,784 47.63 64,498 45,865 71.11 Travel activities Driver 57,855 19,612 33.90 46,728 23,847 51.03 Passenger 9,395 9,395 100.00 15,622 15,622 100.00 Walk or bike 6,018 1,916 31.84 4,623 2,113 45.71 Public transportation 2,046 662 32.36 1,196 616 51.51 Overall (travel) 75,314 31,585 41.94 68,169 42,198 61.90