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132 I N N O VAT I O N S I N T R AV E L D E M A N D M O D E L I N G , V O L U M E 2 Specifically, 47.6% of all weekday episodes and 71% of bers. The percentage of episodes undertaken with only all weekend episodes are joint. Within the class of out- household members decreases from weekdays to week- of-home activities, servepassenger and socializing are end days, whereas the percentage of episodes undertaken by definition taken to be joint, and work and school with only nonhousehold members and with both house- activities are defined as solo. Among the remaining out- hold and nonhousehold members increases from week- of-home activity types, eating and drinking, leisure, and days and weekend days. Overall, this indicates that religiouscivicvolunteer episodes are most likely to be nonhousehold members are more likely to be compan- pursued with other individuals. Finally, for every out-of- ions for in-home activities during weekend days. Within home activity type, the volume of joint episodes is higher the class of in-home activity types, socializing and mis- during weekend days than weekdays. cellaneous episodes are most likely to include A total of 42% of weekday travel episodes and 62% nonhousehold companions. of weekend travel episodes are undertaken with other The results for out-of-home episodes indicate that persons. Again, the percentages of joint travel are higher joint episodes are most likely to be pursued solely with by each mode during the weekend compared with the nonhousehold members, especially during weekdays. weekday. Finally, travel episodes undertaken as a pas- The percentage of episodes pursued with both household senger are by definition joint. and nonhousehold members is higher during the week- Table 3 presents descriptives on the companion types end than the weekday. Finally, we also observe that for joint activity episodes. Specifically, it presents the about 45% of weekday and 56.5% of weekend joint percentages of joint episodes of each type that are pur- episodes include household members. This suggests that, sued with only household members, with only unlike for in-home episodes, household members are nonhousehold members, and with both household and more likely to be companions for out-of-home joint nonhousehold members. As in Table 2, the results are episodes during the weekends. Within the class of out-of- presented separately for weekdays and weekend days. home activity types, shopping episodes are most likely to Note that the numbers sum to 100% across the three be pursued with only household members. On the other columns within each of the two main columns. Further, hand, socializing, leisure, and eating and drinking are the activity types that are solo by definition are not more likely to be undertaken with nonhousehold included. companions. On examining the joint in-home episodes, we find Finally, results from Table 3 also indicate that about that the companions are predominantly household mem- 60% of all joint travel is undertaken with only house- TABLE 3 Descriptives on Companion Type for Joint Episodes by Activity Type and Day of the Week Weekday Weekend Only HH Only non-HH Both Only HH Only non-HH Both In-home activities Household chores 85.98 9.23 4.79 83.61 9.97 6.42 Caregiving 96.86 0.19 2.95 95.19 0.28 4.53 Eating and drinking 87.81 5.75 6.44 83.60 6.15 10.26 Socializing 55.66 26.12 18.22 40.23 28.98 30.80 Television and music 89.46 6.80 3.74 86.64 7.57 5.79 Other leisure 88.21 8.47 3.31 86.10 8.99 4.91 Miscellaneous 48.11 39.59 12.30 49.49 33.97 16.54 Overall (in home) 85.91 8.42 5.67 81.76 9.36 8.88 Out-of-home activities Household or personal services 34.05 54.89 11.06 33.17 46.37 20.46 Serve passenger 58.67 25.29 16.04 30.80 41.47 27.73 Shopping 60.77 31.81 7.41 63.47 26.33 10.20 Eating and drinking 16.72 72.75 10.53 27.93 44.03 28.04 Socializing 4.05 72.47 23.48 5.51 54.04 40.45 Passive leisure 12.05 79.46 8.49 21.85 58.38 19.78 Active leisure 26.39 65.17 8.44 32.48 51.52 16.00 Religious, civic, volunteer 14.89 68.03 17.08 39.69 41.04 19.27 Miscellaneous 37.05 46.28 16.67 35.50 42.13 22.36 Overall (out of home) 31.53 55.07 13.40 32.75 43.57 23.68 Travel activities Driver 68.40 23.98 7.62 66.76 22.40 10.84 Passenger 50.22 41.27 8.52 54.42 32.54 13.05 Walk or bike 49.53 44.00 6.47 58.16 29.20 12.64 Public transportation 25.23 68.43 6.34 41.07 44.32 14.61 Overall (travel) 60.94 31.26 7.79 61.39 26.81 11.80 HH = household.