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C O M PA N I O N S H I P F O R L E I S U R E A C T I V I T I E S 133 hold members as companions. Joint travel during week- Active leisure episodes are most likely to be pursued days is more likely to be pursued with only non- independently. When undertaken with other individuals, household members than joint travel during weekends. the companions are most likely to be household mem- This is consistent with the findings for the companion bers or friends. Finally, the last two alternatives have types for out-of-home activity episodes. been combined into a single category for the passive and In summary, the results from Tables 2 and 3 highlight active leisure episodes. Thus, each model has six alterna- that joint activitytravel constitutes a significant propor- tives in the universal choice set. tion of individuals' overall activitytravel patterns. In the next section, we focus on certain leisure activities (social- izing, passive leisure, and active leisure) for further Companion-Type Model for analysis. However, the summary statistics discussed here Socializing Activities suggest that detailed analysis of all other nonleisure activity types is also warranted. The MNL model for the companion-type choice for socializing activities is presented in Table 5. The "house- hold members only" alternative is chosen as the refer- Analysis of Out-of-Home Leisure Activities ence category. This alternative and the "household and nonhousehold family members" alternative are not This section of the empirical analysis focuses on individ- available for individuals in single-person households. All uals' companion-type choices for three types of out-of- other alternatives are available for all individuals. home leisure activities--socializing (visiting friends, Empirical results indicate that short-duration episodes attending a party), passive leisure (attending movies, are more likely to be undertaken with other non- sports events), and active leisure (participation in sports household members (often colleagues), whereas long- or exercising). The choices and the sample shares for duration episodes are undertaken with a mixed each of these three activity types are presented in Table composition of companions involving household and 4. Socializing activities are joint by definition and are nonhousehold family members and others. Weekday equally likely to be undertaken with family members, episodes are more likely to be pursued with non- nonfamily members, and with a mixed composition. Pas- household members. sive leisure episodes are most likely to be pursued alone As would be expected, younger individuals are more or with nonhousehold other members (often colleagues). likely to undertake social activities with friends as indi- TABLE 4 Sample Shares on Companion Type for the Three Types of Leisure Activities Socializing Passive Leisure Active Leisure Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Solo NA 2,813 26.11 2,233 40.08 Only household members 624 4.95 1,380 12.81 995 17.86 Only nonhousehold family members 2,049 16.25 854 7.93 197 3.54 Only nonhousehold friends 2,580 20.46 1,655 15.36 902 16.19 Only nonhousehold other 2,305 18.28 2,598 24.12 688 12.35 Both household and nonhousehold family members 2,023 16.05 1,472 13.67 557 10 Mixed composition 3,026 24.00 Total 12,607 100.00 10,772 100.00 5,572 100.00 NA = not applicable. TABLE 5 Model for Companion-Type Choice for Socializing Activities Nonhousehold Nonhousehold Nonhousehold Household and Other Mixed Family Friends Other Nonhousehold Family Composition Beta t-stat Beta t-stat Beta t-stat Beta t-stat Beta t-stat Constant 1.559 11.847 1.754 12.666 1.457 11.229 1.563 12.087 1.730 14.473 Activity episode duration 0.004 10.508 0.002 6.434 0.001 5.890 Weekday 0.479 8.293 0.739 13.420 1.205 21.818 Age 0.005 2.796 Male 0.146 2.379 0.516 9.002 0.467 8.023 0.140 2.402 White 0.301 4.702 Employed 0.441 8.475 Student 0.553 7.604 0.345 3.738 Married 1.592 12.336 2.296 17.691 1.917 15.008 0.565 4.234 0.576 4.589 No children in household 1.231 18.161 0.877 12.244 0.495 7.586 0.170 2.996 Log likelihood (convergence) 19,263.24 Log likelihood (constants only) 20,949.43