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D ATA - O R I E N T E D T R AV E L B E H AV I O R A N A LY S I S 189 the purpose, should be reported. Interacting with the vided by subjects touching or passing readers for interviewer, however, should aid in improving the data contact-type passive radio frequency identification quality attainable by telephone surveys. (RFID) tags and active RFID tags installed in specific In recent years, Internet-based interactive survey spaces in the Matsuyama metropolitan area. methods have been proposed by Lyons and McDonald. However, although such measurement methods have Web surveys have the advantage of quick implementa- high accuracy for determining spacetime positions, they tion and cost reduction in survey administration, and, can be said to be survey methods for limited transport like CATI, the need for data coding can be eliminated. modes and spaces of travel. It is difficult to record travel The obvious advantage is the absence of sampling frames seamlessly to analyze travelers' travel behaviors trip by and no control of respondent self-selectivity. Yet trip. There is a common problem that the system cannot improvement in the accuracy of data records can be measure trips that use other means of transportation expected by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) than specific transport modes or such trips as transfers. that uses maps, graphic illustrations, and the like. For Moreover, the purpose of a trip needs to rely on ques- these interactive surveys, as with all the other methods tionnaire surveys. mentioned so far, however, the accuracy of data on travel To solve such problems, a survey method using an route and time is low because the surveys rely on respon- automatic position and time recording system on the dents' memory (Hato et al. 1999). basis of mobile phones has been proposed by Hato and To solve some of these problems, survey procedures Asakura (2001). A travel behavior survey method that based on probe vehicles using GPS units have been devel- uses personal handset system automatically measures oped by Murakami and Wagner (1999) and Zitto et al. position data, and several methods have been proposed (1995). The ability of automatically recording the posi- for recognizing human travel-activity patterns and deter- tion of a vehicle over time has made it possible to observe mining paths on the basis of position data alone. The travel speed and path for a long period. In contrast, a numbers of observable trips are larger--and long-term method has been proposed in which sensors are incorpo- surveys are possible by these methods--than with con- rated into spaces of travel to record human travel behav- ventional survey methods that rely on subjects' memory iors rather than attaching measuring instruments to (Figure 1). However, complete automation will increase transport modes for travel. For travel of pedestrians, a estimation errors in behavior patterns and paths if the survey method using integrated circuit (IC) tags has been accuracy of position determination is low (Hato et al. proposed. Hato and Asakura (2001) have developed a 2006). Therefore, it is necessary that the investigator per- system that allows the measurement of migration behav- form data correction. Because there is a limit to the auto- iors of subjects in which interactive information is pro- matic recognition of the facilities of stay by using a FIGURE 1 Day-to-day path selection activity patterns for one individual.