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D ATA - O R I E N T E D T R AV E L B E H AV I O R A N A LY S I S 191 With mobile activity loggers (MoALs) and the adop- limited methods of personal information usage and the tion of an agent-type system, a system in which input like and its presentation to subjects to obtain a data pro- from a mobile phone was easy, and viewing, recording, vision contract. The survey results were compared with and correcting trip records was made possible for sub- those from both the national transportation census and a jects anywhere was developed by instantly sharing data person trip survey implemented within the same region via the web diary. Figure 3 shows travel-activity data in the past. The survey periods for the national trans- from a subject that was collected by MoALs. It is clear portation census and person trip survey were both a day that the trip-activity and path-selection patterns that var- long. Upon comparison of the average number of trips, it ied daily were simultaneously measured. In GPS-based is clear that MPP showed a larger value. In addition, the probe vehicle surveys, it is possible to collect successive average number of trips for one day drastically increased day-to-day activity data for a long period, if only for the when compared with the conventional national trans- path variations. However, it is difficult to collect trip- portation census or person trip survey. It has been sur- activity data and analyze activities after trips that are mised that trip omission occurs less frequently with this related to path changes at the same time. method than with conventional surveys that use paper. However, simple web or paper questionnaires can be Furthermore, the number of trips for one person on a great burden in successive surveys, and it has been sur- 1 day increased from 3.61 in MPP2003 to 3.80 in mised that simultaneously collecting path data is difficult MPP2004. Trip omission was considered to decrease even when diary data can be obtained. As shown in the due to the reduction in the reply-flow burden on test Figure 3, MoALs enable the observation of perturbation subjects. The system configuration varied in MPP2003, phenomena such as path changes and rechanges that can MPP2004, and MPP2005. Because MPP2003 had no occur over the long term, along with concurrent time facility registration function, the reason for omission variations for the trip-activity patterns. It suggests that may have been test subject reluctance. Moreover, there the collection of individual trip-activity data is possible were no facility attributes, transportation means, or over a long period by combining mobile phones and a purpose of trip omissions in MPP2004. The reason for web diary. this seemed to be the system's preventing of test sub- To verify the validity of MoALs, the Matsuyama jects from completing editing work if any of the report probe person (MPP) survey was implemented for 3 years is blank when editing the web diary. The cost for con- starting in 2003. The MPP survey is a panel-type survey, verting the information into data in MoALs is negligi- and a successive diary survey was implemented for the ble. In contrast, data coding costs can be enormous for same subjects by using MoALs for about a month. A censuses or person trip surveys if implemented on a new panel was added each wave. The rate of subject large scale, as it can take from 1 to 10 min per slip. withdrawal in the course of the survey by using these In such a system, attempts are made to enhance the methods was 2% and 9.3%, respectively, for MPP2003 function of making subjects themselves complete activity and MPP2004. The rate was higher for MPP2004 than records by using a blog function, as well as by simply for MPP2003. In implementing the survey, measures to asking them to record trip data. protect personal information were taken and included the preparation of a privacy policy that documented the Interactive Surveys: Applications of Survey Techniques by Using RFID Tags In the probe person survey, the origin and destination of travel behavior in a wide area are collected by means of GPS information. Because the accuracy of position infor- mation from a GPS is about 5 to 15 m, it cannot be said that the origin and destination are accurately and reliably authenticated. In particular, it is difficult to acquire indoor position information, and there are such problems as the inability to identify with accuracy travel to different facil- ities in the same building and the difficulty of identifying an automobile and a bus traveling the same path. However, in a behavior survey using RFID tags, sub- jects are asked to carry a card with an IC chip that trans- mits weak radio waves, and the radio waves are FIGURE 3 Incentive systems for pedestrians based on probe transmitted by RFID tags to readers installed in specific person systems. locations, making it possible to record an individual's