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192 I N N O VAT I O N S I N T R AV E L D E M A N D M O D E L I N G , V O L U M E 2 position with arbitrary position accuracy. The accuracy a greater tendency of producing purchase behavior and can be changed from 10 cm to 50 m by changing the type revitalizing a town. In addition, an attempt was made to of RFID tag, and various behaviors can be authenticated. increase the number of visited stores and the number of Unlike conventional questionnaire and GPS surveys, in purchases by granting more points to people who suc- which the authentication of precise behavior spaces was cessively migrated to highly associated commercial difficult due to low position accuracy, reliable authenti- facilities. cation of transport mode is made possible by installing The experiment was implemented for 1 month. The RFID tag readers in buses and in bicycle parking lots or number of participants in the experiment was 260; the by attaching RFID tags to bicycles. And the collection of number of samples for only passive tags was 130; and data on purchase behaviors of individuals is made possi- the number of samples for activepassive tags was 130. ble by installing readers at cash registers. Analysis of the results shows that the visit frequency to Applications of survey techniques are shown Figures the city center was 1.5 times per week before the experi- 2 and 3. This survey system has been implemented with ment was started, but it increased considerably to 2.5 passive- and active-type RFID tags, adds points accord- times per week, on average, after the experiment began. ing to the content of individuals' history of town walk- Moreover, the duration of stay in the city center ing, and transmits the content in real time, through increased from 100 to 120 min, and the average pur- cooperation with the e-mail system of mobile phones. chase increased from 2,000 to 2,700 yen by the intro- The granted points become the incentive compensation duction of the incentives. The introduction of this for the subjects. system, called a town-walking point system, to shopping Three major characteristics of such a survey system malls and similar locations will make possible analysis of are as follows: the migration patterns specific to the commercial malls in real time and the design of the incentives. 1. It is possible to capture detailed migration behav- An important point is that the implementation of iors of subjects in a small area. results of travel behavior analyses and behavior models 2. It is possible to revitalize the commercial activities that have conventionally been used in this field as an in the target area by introducing (a) purchase incentives information system will directly help the revenue man- according to migration patterns and (b) advertising dis- agement of commercial areas. Modeling of the reactions tribution according to location. to incentives for each segment that are predicted by 3. Subjects will come to provide accurate behavior behavior models will enable the construction of an opti- data to obtain these incentives. mum online-type revenue management system. Further- more, the accumulation of such longitudinal behavior Although the investigator only unilaterally observed data on town walking, which are collected in real time, and surveyed the behaviors of subjects in conventional will lead to a better understanding of travel behavior, survey systems, the real-time collection and accumula- such as (a) the differences in duration of stay, purchased tion of behavior data of subjects who used such commu- items, and purchase frequency between shoppers who nication functions enable interactive marketing analysis have visited the central urban area by car and by public and make it possible to induce various life behaviors in a transportation and (b) the extent to which behaviors are planned way by distributing information on the basis of related to daily activity patterns and their day-to-day the results of analysis. perturbations. Figure 3 shows the overview and results of the social experiment on town-walking points. In this social exper- iment, an RFID tagbased survey system was imple- Example of Behavioral-Context Addressable mented in a commercial mall in the urban center of the Loggers in the Shell Matsuyama metropolitan area. A system was prepared by installing passive tag readers (with an effective range Both questionnaire surveys and the probe person survey, of 10 cm), which authenticate people who have put a which is aided by GPS mobile phones and a web diary, card over a reader, and active tag readers (with an effec- can be said to be survey methods that try to obtain more tive range of a 50-m radius), which tell the locations of accurate behavior data by requesting subjects to perform passage and personal IDs of passers without their cards some kind of operation for recording. Such recording being put over a reader, in several locations in a town. methods as completing questionnaire forms, responding By using this system, more points were granted to peo- to web questionnaires, pressing a button of a GPS at the ple whose duration of stay was longer and who migrated time of departure, or putting a card incorporated with to specific stores rather than having points uniformly an RFID tag close to a reader at the time of arrival assigned to people who have simply visited a commercial require the subjects themselves to perform an act of mall. A longer duration of stay in a commercial mall has recording, and therefore these methods tend to result in