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DEVELOPMENT OF MID- OHIO REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION TOUR- BASED MODEL 31 1. Household car ownership 2. Linked daily activity patterns for HH members Mandatory Nonmandatory At homeabsent (work/university/school) (maintenancediscretionary) (no travel) Primary destination (5) TOD (6) and mode (7) Residual time windows for persons 3. Joint HH tour generation and participation of HH members 4.14.2. Maintenance HH tour generation and allocation to HH members 4.3. Discretionary individual tour generation 5. Destination; 6. TOD; and 7. Mode, for nonmandatory joint and individual tours 8. Secondary stop frequency, location, and trip mode choice FIGURE 1 Structure of core set of MORPC models (Columbus, Ohio). through 8 is not strictly sequential but corresponds to accurately accounts for the characteristics of this travel, the meaningful blocks of which the model stream is built. particularly in relation to mode choice. In virtually all Some of the models (for example, Model 6, the TOD other models in the United States, this phenomenon is choice model) are called twice in the procedure, first for not accounted for directly. Again, after joint tours are mandatory tours (after Model 2) and second for non- determined, the available time left for additional travel is mandatory tours (after Model 4). Models 5, 6, and 7 are updated for each synthesized person. Model 4 generates also closely connected by sharing mode-choice log sums; all individual nonmandatory tours, such as shopping, thus, they are implemented together for technical conve- eating out, and recreation. Each tour can be scheduled nience and computer time savings. only within the residual time window remaining after Model 1 is the automobile ownership model, which the scheduling of all previous tours. If no time exists for determines the exact number of vehicles available for additional tours, then additional tours cannot be each household on the basis of the household attributes scheduled. and the transit accessibility level of the residence. Model The next three models are applied together and 2 determines the daily activity pattern for each person. A include tour destination choice (Model 5), TOD choice person can either have a mandatory activity pattern, such (Model 6), and tour mode choice (Model 7). The desti- as work or school; only nonmandatory activities, such as nation and mode choice models are both logit based, and shopping; or no travel activity for the day. This model the destination choice step uses the log sum composite also determines the number of mandatory tours each per- impedance measure from the mode choice model. The son with a mandatory activity pattern makes during the TOD model is based on the time windows concept, day. After a mandatory tour is scheduled, the available accounting for the use of a person's time budget over the time left for other travel opportunities is updated. day. It includes the mode choice log sum for various Model 3 is unique to the MORPC set of models and TOD periods, making it sensitive to congestion. These determines joint travel among household members. This models are applied at the tour level, yielding the primary model allows two or more members of a household to destination, TOD, and mode choice for the entire tour, travel jointly for a shared activity, for example, eating and consider both outbound and inbound portions of out. Given the high propensity of household members to the tour. travel together, this model is important in that it more