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30 REFERENCES 1. Halladay, M.L., et al., Traffic Safety Information Sys- 2003 [Online]. Available: http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot. tems in Europe and Australia, Report FHWA-PL-04- gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/MMUCC/2003/MMUCC_02.pdf 010, Office of International Programs, Federal Highway [2003, Apr.]. Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation 14. Safety Management Systems: Good Practices for Devel- (HPIP), Washington, D.C., 2004, 112 pp. [Online]. Avail- opment and Implementation, Office of Highway Safety, able: http://www.international.fhwa.dot.gov/tsis_04010/ Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of index.htm [2004, Sep.]. Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1996, 30 pp. 2. An Evaluation of the Highway Safety Program--A 15. Uniformity in Motor Carrier Accident Reporting: Rec- Report to Congress from the Secretary of Transporta- ommendations for the States, National Governors' Asso- tion, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, ciation Center for Policy Research, Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., June 1988. July 1977. 16. Highway Safety Program Advisories, Report DOT HS 3. Highway Safety Act of 1966, U.S. Statutes at Large, 807 655, National Highway Traffic Safety Administra- Vol. 80, pt. 1, PL 89-564, secs. 402403, 1967, 2743. tion, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, 4. Highway Safety Act of 1966, U.S. Statutes at Large, D.C., Dec. 1990, pp. 4759. Vol. 80, pt. 1, PL 89-564, secs. 402403, 1967. 17. An Evaluation of Traffic Accident Records Systems in 5. Highway Safety Program Standards, United States Code Texas and Other States, Policy Research Project Report of Federal Regulations, Vol. 23, 506, Federal Highway 65, Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, The Administration, Washington, D.C., 1983. University of Texas at Austin, 1984, p. 8. 6. "Manual on Classification of Motor Vehicle Traffic 18. Contact Surveys conducted by National Highway Traf- Accidents," 6th ed., ANSI D-16, National Safety Coun- fic Safety Administration and Federal Motor Carrier cil, Washington, D.C., 1996 [Online]. Available: http:// Safety Administration, Unpublished, 2004. nhtsa.dot.gov/people/perform/trafrecords/crash2003/pdf/ 19. Pfefer, R.C., R.A. Raub, and R.E. Lucke, Highway Safety d16.pdf (n.d.). Data: Costs, Quality, and Strategies for Improvement, 7. "States' Model Motorist Data Base Data Element Dic- Final Report, Report FHWA-RD-96-192, Federal High- tionary for Traffic Records Systems," ANSI D-20-2002, way Administration, McLean, Va., Jan. 1998, 34 pp. American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators, 20. Traffic Records Advisory, National Highway Traffic Arlington, Va., 2003 [Online]. Available: http://www. Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transporta- aamva.org/Documents/std2003ANSIDICTIONARYFI tion, Washington, D.C., 1998. NAL.pdf [2004, Nov. 24]. 21. O'Day, J., NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 192: 8. "State Data Systems," National Center for Statistics and Accident Data Quality, Transportation Research Board, Analysis, National Highway Traffic Safety Administra- tion, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1993, D.C., 2003 [Online]. Available: http://www-nrd.nhtsa. 48 pp. dot.gov/departments/nrd-30/ncsa//SDS.html (n.d.). 22. Hatch, C.E., Effectiveness and Efficiencies in Traffic 9. Council, F.M. and J.F. Paniati, "The Highway Safety Records, National Highway Traffic Safety Administra- Information System (HSIS)," Public Roads, Vol. 54, tion, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, No. 3, Dec. 1990, pp. 234240. D.C., Mar. 1982, 34 pp. 10. Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 23. Hughes, W.E., et al., New and Emerging Technologies for 1991 (ISTEA), Public Law 102-240, 105, Stat. 2177, Improving Accident Data Collection, Report FHWA-RD- Dec. 1991. 92-097, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Depart- 11. CADRE--Critical Automated Data Reporting Elements ment of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1993, p. 8. for Highway Safety Analysis, National Safety Council, 24. Pfefer, R.C., T.R. Neuman, and R.A. Raub, NCHRP Chicago, Ill., June 30, 1991. Report 430: Improved Safety Information to Support 12. Johnson, S.W. and J. Walker, The Crash Outcome Data Highway Design, Transportation Research Board, Evaluation System (CODES), NHTSA Technical Report, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1999, Report DOT HS 808 338, National Highway Traffic p. 38. Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transporta- 25. Cannon, J.L., Technocar 2000: The Car of the Future, tion, Washington, D.C., Jan. 1996, 98 pp. Law Enforcement Technology, Nov. 1994, pp. 4244. 13. "Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria (MMUCC)," 26. Crouse, M.R., Emerging Technologies for Automated 2nd ed., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Data Collection, Report TARE-90, Texas Transporta- U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., tion Institute, College Station, Jan. 1992.

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31 27. DeLucia, B.H. and R.A. Scopatz, "Safety Data Action 31. NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 21: Highway Plan Project 9: Explore Options for Using Technology Location Reference Methods, Highway Research Board, in Data Collection," Presented at the Safety in Numbers National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1974, Conference, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Wash- 30 pp. ington, D.C., Jan. 9, 2002. 32. Zegeer, C.V., NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 28. Thielman, C.Y., Expert Systems for Crash Data Col- 91: Highway Accident Analysis Systems, Transportation lection, Report FHWA-RD-99-052, Federal Highway Research Board, National Research Council, Washing- Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, ton, D.C., 1982, 69 pp. McLean, Va., 1999, 73 pp. 33. A National Agenda for the Improvement of Highway 29. National Model: Statewide Application of Data Collection Safety Information Systems, National Safety Council, and Management Technology to Improve Highway Safety, Chicago, Ill., 1996, 10 pp. Report FHWA-RD-99-140, Federal Highway Adminis- 34. "The Strategic Highway Safety Plan," American Asso- tration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, ciation of State Highway and Transportation Officials, D.C., 1999, 4 pp. Washington, D.C., Sep. 1997 [Online]. Available: http:// 30. Griffith, M.S., C. Hayden, and H. Kalla, "Data is safety.transportation.org/plan.aspx [n.d.]. Key to Understanding and Improving Safety," Public 35. Griffith, M.S. and B.H. DeLucia, "Traffic Safety Infor- Roads, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2003, pp. 4247 [Online]. Avail- mation Systems: An International Scan Aimed to Find able: http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/03jan/09.htm [2003, Strategies for Improving Safety Data," Public Roads, Jan./Feb.]. Vol. 68, No. 2, Sep./Oct. 2004, pp. 5256.