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5 · Future trends and promising technologies, and TABLE 1 · Recommendations for future research. SUMMARY OF RESPONSES RECEIVED FROM STATES/ PROVINCES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA QUESTIONNAIRE No. of Bridges Reported No. of Bridges Reported A questionnaire (see Appendix A) was prepared and distributed Response Received Response Received to all state and provincial DOTs in the United States and Canada. The same questionnaire was also sent to all members of the Post-Tensioning Institute's (PTI) Cable-Stayed Bridge Committee, as well as major U.S. and Mexican stay cable sup- pliers and testing companies. Table 1 cites those states and States/Provinces States/Provinces provinces that responded and the number of bridges reported United States by each agency. A completed questionnaire was also received Alabama Y 1 Missouri Y 1 Alaska Y 2 Mississippia -- 0 from one stay cable supplier. Table 2 is a list of all known cable- Arizona Y 0 Montana Y 0 stayed bridges in the United States and Canada. The informa- Arkansasa -- 1 North Carolina Y 0 tion contained in the completed surveys, published literature, California Y 1f North Dakota Y 0 a paper by Podolny (1992), and a report by Kumarasena et al. Colorado Y 0e New Hampshire Y 0 Connecticut Y 0 New Jersey Y 0 (2004) were used to assemble this list. Delaware Y 1 New Mexico Y 0 Floridab -- 1 Nevada Y 0 In the United States, 43 state DOTs (86%) responded to Georgia Y 2 New York Y 0 the survey, 24 of which did not have any cable-stayed bridges Hawaii Y 0 Ohioc -- 2 Idaho Y 0 Pennsylvania Y 0 under their jurisdiction. One city (Milwaukee, Wisconsin) is Illinois Y 2 Rhode Island Y 0 maintaining two recently completed cable-stayed bridges. A Indiana Y 2 South Carolina Y 1 completed questionnaire for one of the two new cable-stayed Iowa Y 1 Tennessee Y 0 bridges in Ohio (Maumee River Bridge) was provided by the Kansas Y 0 Texas Y 2 Kentucky Y 2 Utah Y 0 designer of the bridge. Louisiana Y 1 Virginia Y 1 Massachusetts Y 1 Washington Y 2 A completed survey for one of the two cable-stayed bridges Maryland Y 0 Wisconsin Y 2 in Florida, the Dame Point Bridge in Jacksonville, was re- Michigan Y 0 Wyoming Y 0 Minnesota Y 0 ceived. In addition, the Indiana DOT provided responses on Canada two bridges, one a cable-stayed bridge and the other an arch Alberta/Calgaryd -- 5 New Brunswick Y 3 bridge that incorporated stay cables. Table 1 lists only one British Columbia Y 1 Ontario Y 0 cable-stayed bridge in Indiana, but the analyses of question- Manitoba/ Winnipeg Y 1 Québec Y 3 a naire results include both Indiana bridges. Mississippi and Arkansas share a bridge that is under construction and will be maintained by Arkansas. b The survey for one of the two Florida cable-stayed bridges was received. In the United States, completed questionnaires were re- c The Ohio DOT reported two cable-stayed bridges under construction and the ceived for 75% of all known cable-stayed bridges (i.e., 27 of questionnaire for one bridge was received. d All cable-stayed bridges reported for Calgary in Alberta, Canada, are pedestrian bridges. 36 cable-stayed bridges, with one additional arch bridge). It e There are two pedestrian cable-stayed bridges in downtown Denver, Colorado. should be noted that four of the bridges listed in the U.S. f Information was not available on these bridges at the time of the writing of this report. There is a pedestrian cable-stayed bridge in Redding, California. Information for this inventory are pedestrian bridges. Therefore, the responses bridge became available only after the completion of this report covered 84% of all highway bridges in the United States. No responses on U.S. pedestrian bridges were received. Ques- tionnaires were not received for several other major cable- Using the data in Table 2, Figures 3 and 4 show the num- stayed bridges in the United States including the Sunshine ber of cable-stayed bridges built (i.e., opened to traffic) in the Skyway Bridge in Florida, two bridges in West Virginia (East United States and Canada from 1955 to 2005 in 10-year in- Huntington and WeirtonSteubenville), and the recently com- crements. In the United States, there has been a substantial pleted La Plata River Bridge in Puerto Rico. increase in the number and the rate of construction of cable- stayed bridges. From 1996 to 2005, 17 cable-stayed bridges In Canada, responses were obtained from 5 of the 13 prov- were built in the United States, representing 47% of all such inces, representing 13 of the 16 known cable-stayed bridges in bridges built since 1970. The average age of cable-stayed Canada (81%). The five cable-stayed bridges in Alberta/ bridges in the U.S. inventory (as of 2005) was 11.4 years, Calgary are all pedestrian bridges. Responses were not received whereas the average age in Canada was 27 years. for the ALRT Fraser River Bridge in British Columbia, and Bridge of the Isles and North Romaine railroad bridge in Que- The early Canadian bridge, the 217-m Hawkshaw Bridge bec. In some states and Canadian provinces, different agencies built in 1967, had galvanized bridge strands with the stay cable controlled maintenance of different cable-stayed bridges, thus wrapped with galvanized wire 5 ft above the deck and then making the task of identifying the proper agencies difficult. coated with protective paste. This approach is somewhat
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6 TABLE 2 CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA No. Bridge Name State Span, m (ft) Year United States 1 Cooper River Bridge South Carolina 472 (1,546) 2005 2 Greenville Bridge, US 82 over Mississippi Mississippi 420 (1,378) 2005 3 Dame Point Bridge Florida 397 (1,300) 1989 4 Fred Hartman/Houston Ship Channel Texas 381 (1,250) 1995 5 Sidney Lanier Bridge, Brunswick Georgia 381 (1,250) 2003 6 Hale Boggs/Luling Bridge Louisiana 373 (1,222) 1984 7 Sunshine Skyway Bridge Florida 366 (1,200) 1987 8 William Natcher/Owensboro Bridge Kentucky 366 (1,200) 2002 9 Bill Emerson/Cape Girardeau Bridge Missouri 351 (1,150) 2003 10 Talmadge Memorial Bridge, Savannah Georgia 336 (1,100) 1991 11 William Harsha Bridge, Maysville Kentucky 320 (1,050) 2000 12 PascoKennewick Bridge, Gum Street Washington 299 (981) 1978 13 East Huntington Bridge West Virginia 275 (900) 1985 14 Quincy/Bayview Bridge Illinois 275 (900) 1986 15 US Grant, Portsmouth Ohio 267 (875) 2004 16 WeirtonSteubenville West Virginia 250 (820) 1990 17 Cochrane Africatown Bridge Alabama 238 (780) 1991 18 Clark Bridge, Alton Illinois 230 (756) 1994 19 C&D Canal Bridge Delaware 229 (750) 1995 20 L.P. Zakim Bunker Hill, Charles River Massachusetts 227 (745) 2002 21 Burlington Bridge, Burlington Iowa 201 (660) 1995 22 Veterans Memorial/Neches River Bridge Texas 195 (640) 1991 23 VarinaEnon Bridge/James River Virginia 192 (630) 1990 24 Maumee River Crossing Ohio 187 (613) 2005 25 PR 148 over LaPlata River Puerto Rico 160 (525) 2005 26 SR 46/East Fork White River Indiana 142 (466) 1999 27 Sitka Harbor/John O'Connel Bridge Alaska 137 (450) 1970 28 Tea Foss Waterway Bridge, Tacoma Washington 114 (375) 1996 29 Captain William Moore/Skagway Alaska 83 (271) 1975 30 Milwaukee Art Museum/Calatrava Bridgea Wisconsin 70 (231) 2003 31 Menomonee Fallsa Wisconsin 66 (217) 1971 32 Sixth Street Viaduct--North Wisconsin 59 (195) 2003 33 Sixth Street Viaduct--South Wisconsin 59 (195) 2003 b 34 Sacramento River (Meridian) California 55 (180) 1977 35 Rockefeller University Campusa New York 38 (123) 1999 36 Old Plank Road Trail Bridgea Illinois 35 (114) 1999 Canada 1 Alex Fraser (Annacis) Bridge British Columbia 465 (1,526) 1986 2 ALRT Fraser River Bridge British Columbia 340 (1,115) 1988 3 PapineauLeblanc Quebec 241 (790) 1969 4 Hawkshaw New Brunswick 218 (713) 1967 5 Longs Creek #1 New Brunswick 218 (713) 1966 6 Price Quebec 137 (450) 1972 7 Esplanade Riel, Manitoba Winnipeg 106 (348) 2003 8 Bridge of the Isles Quebec 105 (344) 1967 a 9 Stoney Trail Alberta/Calgary 102 (335) 1998 10 Galipeault Quebec 94 (308) 1963 11 Carburn Parka Alberta/Calgary 80 (262) 1982 12 Prince's Island a Alberta/Calgary 67 (220) 1972 13 Nackawic River New Brunswick 66 (216) 1967 14 North Romaine Riverc Quebec 61 (200) 1960 15 McMahon*** Alberta/Calgary 47 (154) 1987 16 Fox Hollow*** Alberta/Calgary 45 (148) 1996 Notes: Bridges are cited in order of span length, from longest to shortest. After the completion of this report, three additional, recently built pedestrian cable-stayed bridges were identified in the United States; two in downtown Denver, Colorado, and one in Redding, California. These three bridges are not included in the analysis. a Pedestrian. b Swing movable bridge. c Railroad bridge.
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7 18 avoided the grouted cable approach. The PascoKennewick 16 Bridge was also the first of its kind in the United States to use a larger number of cables (i.e., reduce cable spacing). 14 No. of Bridges Built 12 In Canada, the 465-m Alex Fraser Bridge (1986) in- 10 cluded long-lay galvanized bridge strands that were jacketed with PE filled with petroleum wax blocking compound. 8 The first and only cable-stayed bridge in the United States 6 that uses steel bars (or threadbars) is the Dame Point Bridge 4 in Jacksonville, Florida (1989). In that bridge, the nongalva- nized bars are encased in steel pipe and grouted. There are 2 four pedestrian bridges in Calgary, Canada, that use bar stay 0 cables, all galvanized without HDPE or grouting. The bars 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 More are anchored through threaded couplers. The first stay cables Years with epoxy-coated seven-wire strands were installed on the FIGURE 3 Number of cable-stayed bridges Quincy/Bayview Bridge in Quincy, Illinois (1986). built in the United States. In the last 20 years, the design of stay cables including the corrosion/fatigue protection systems have significantly and similar to the suspension bridge main cables. The Papineau continuously evolved and been modified. In the 1990s, systems Bridge in Montreal (1969) incorporated galvanized bridge offered by all of the major stay cable suppliers were rarely (if strands covered with polyethylene (PE) sheathing. The Sitka ever) left unchanged between consecutive projects despite eco- Harbor Bridge in Alaska (1970) also used galvanized bridge nomic incentives to limit such changes. This was primarily strands as cables, but without the PE sheathing. The Pasco because the designers, cable suppliers, and owners learned Kennewick (or Gum StreetKennewick) Bridge in Washing- from their experiences and the performances of the earlier stay ton State (1978) was the first cable-stayed bridge in the United cable systems during qualification testing and construction. States to use parallel nongalvanized (bare) wires encased in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe wrapped with poly- Since 2000, a tentative convergence of approaches emerged vinyl chloride (PVC) tape and grouted with cement grout. This among some of the stay cable systems offered by various was a fundamental shift from the earlier designs based on the suppliers in the United States. All major U.S. stay cable industrial and suspension cable technologies involving gal- suppliers began offering at least one system involving par- vanized wires and strands toward grouted cables based on the allel seven-wire strands that were individually greased-and- post-tensioning technology. As will be discussed later, this sheathed (or waxed-and-sheathed), encased in an ungrouted grouted cable approach was first implemented in Europe, most HDPE pipe, and anchored with wedges. Individual stressing notably on the Brotonne Bridge in France, before its implemen- of strands, as opposed to simultaneous stressing of all strands tation on the PascoKennewick Bridge. This approach of using with large hydraulic jacks, was commonly used. Some of the HDPE pipes filled with cement grout began the "grout era" in more recent systems reportedly allow periodic removal of the United States, which dominated the U.S. stay cable designs individual strands for inspection and sometimes provide room for nearly two decades until the late 1990s. The Canadians, for future additions of strands into the cables. the Germans, and the Japanese among others have primarily Following this introductory chapter, chapter two provides an overview of various stay cable systems, touching on design, 8 materials, fabrication, and erection. Chapter three describes 7 short- and long-term inspection and monitoring techniques. Chapter four discusses the maintenance and repair of stay 6 cables, chapter five briefly discusses future trends, and chap- No. of Bridges Built 5 ter six summarizes the findings and provides suggestions for future research. 4 3 The survey questionnaire is included as Appendix A. Appendix B provides detailed statistical tabular summaries 2 of the answers to each of the multiple-choice questions as 1 provided by the respondents for all bridges. The answers are categorized as U.S. responses, Canadian responses, and all 0 responses. Appendix C is a web-only section of the report 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 More that provides detailed question-by-question results of each Years bridge surveyed and comparative tables of the the different FIGURE 4 Number of cable-stayed bridges responses to each question. This appendix can be found at: built in Canada. http://trb.org/publications/nchrp/nchrp_syn_353.pdf.