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58 around HDPE with polyurethane improved cable damping CHALLENGES IN MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, somewhat, but not to the level achieved by a properly in- AND RETROFIT stalled neoprene ring. The authors suggested experimenting The main challenges in maintenance and repair are: with higher stiffness polyurethanes as a possible effective approach. It is interesting to note however that Yamaguchi · Determining the condition of the anchorage elements, et al. (1999) reported that filling "rubber seals into the entrance especially those that include cement grout or epoxy of cable in the girder" in some cables of the Tatara Bridge fillers, at reasonable cost and with reasonable confidence. in Japan reduced incidences of vortex-induced vibrations, · Proper and safe access for inspection of cables. and they consider this to be an efficient solution for long · Methods and procedures to replace existing cables on a cables. number of aging bridges, when needed. · Control and elimination of moisture and corrosion inside There are a number of other patented concepts for damp- cable components. ing stay cable vibrations including flexible damper bands · Vibration control and fatigue issues associated with by Sarkar et al. (2002) and two separate patents on active vibrations. damper bands with shiftable mass by Phelan et al. (2002, · Insufficient sharing of knowledge and training for those 2004). responsible for maintaining cable-stayed bridges.