Click for next page ( 73


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 72
72 APPENDIX B Statistical Analysis of Survey Results QUESTION 4.4 QUESTION 4.7 TYPE OF MAIN TENSION ELEMENT (MTE)? TYPE OF GROUT USED? % % % % % % U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total Seven-wire steel Grout not used 6 21.4 12 92.3 43.9 strand 21 75.0 1 7.7 53.7 Cementwater 5 17.9 0 0.0 12.2 Steel wire 3 10.7 7 53.8 24.4 Cementwater Steel bar or threadbar 1 3.6 4 30.8 12.2 admixtures 9 32.1 0 0.0 22.0 Other 2 7.1 1 7.7 7.3 Commercial prepackaged grouts 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 Not known 6 21.4 0 0.0 14.6 Not applicable 0 0.0 1 7.7 2.4 QUESTION 4.5 COATING/TREATMENT ON MAIN TENSION ELEMENT No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 WITHIN FREE LENGTH OF CABLE? % % % QUESTION 4.8 U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total ARE FILLER MATERIALS USED IN THE ANCHORAGE ZONE? Bare 12 42.9 0 0.0 29.3 Greased-and- % % % sheathed 6 21.4 0 0.0 14.6 U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total Epoxy-coated outside Yes--grout 6 21.4 0 0.0 14.6 only 4 14.3 0 0.0 9.8 Yes--grease 10 35.7 0 0.0 24.4 Epoxy-coated in and out 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 Yes--other 7 25.0 2 15.4 22.0 Galvanized 3 10.7 8 61.5 26.8 No filler 0 0.0 11 84.6 26.8 Stainless steel 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 Not known 4 14.3 0 0.0 9.8 Other 1 3.6 5 38.5 14.6 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 QUESTION 4.9 TYPE OF ANCHORAGE? QUESTION 4.6 ARE THE COATINGS/TREATMENTS ON MAIN TENSION % % % ELEMENT DISCONTINUED OR REMOVED WITHIN THE U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total ANCHORAGE ZONE? Wedges 6 21.4 0 0.0 14.6 % % % Conical socket with U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total wedges 13 46.4 2 15.4 36.6 Yes 9 32.1 2 15.4 26.8 Cylindrical sockets with wedges 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 No 1 3.6 9 69.2 24.4 "Hi-Am" type 3 10.7 0 0.0 7.3 Not known 7 25.0 2 15.4 22.0 Other 3 10.7 11 84.6 34.1 Not applicable 10 35.7 0 0.0 24.4 Not known 2 7.1 0 0.0 4.9 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4

OCR for page 72
73 QUESTION 4.10 QUESTION 4.14 DO CABLES GO OVER S ADDLES " ON THE PYLONS? DO CABLES HAVE NEOPRENE RINGS NEAR THE TOP AND BOTTOM ANCHORAGES? % % % U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total % % % U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total Yes 6 21.4 1 7.7 17.1 Yes 18 64.3 4 30.8 53.7 No 21 75.0 12 92.3 80.5 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 No 7 25.0 9 69.2 39.0 Not known 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 QUESTION 4.11 Not applicable 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 TYPE OF CABLE SHEATHING USED? No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 % % % U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total QUESTION 4.15 HDPE with PVF IF THERE ARE NEOPRENE RINGS ON THE CABLES, HAVE (Tedlar tape) 10 35.7 0 0.0 24.4 THERE BEEN ANY REPORTS OF MOVEMENTS OF THE RINGS OUT OF THEIR POSITIONS? UV-resistant HDPE 0 0.0 1 7.7 2.4 UV-resistant HDPE % % % with spiral on U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total surface 7 25.0 1 7.7 19.5 Yes--due to HDPE with dimples loosening of on the surface 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 retainers 4 14.3 0 0.0 9.8 Steel pipe 2 7.1 0 0.0 4.9 Yes--due to shearing off of retainers 1 3.6 1 7.7 4.9 No sheathing 3 10.7 9 69.2 29.3 Yes--due to other Other 3 10.7 2 15.4 12.2 reasons 2 7.1 1 7.7 7.3 No answer 3 10.7 0 0.0 7.3 No, not known 12 42.9 2 15.4 34.1 Not applicable 8 28.6 9 69.2 41.5 QUESTION 4.12 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 HAVE RAINWIND-INDUCED CABLE VIBRATIONS BEEN OBSERVED ON THIS BRIDGE? QUESTION 4.16 % % % HAS MOISTURE BEEN FOUND IN ANY OF THE INTERNAL U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total COMPONENTS OF STAY CABLES SUCH AS THE BOTTOM Yes 6 21.4 6 46.2 29.3 ANCHORAGE AREAS? No 17 60.7 5 38.5 53.7 % % % Not known 3 10.7 2 15.4 12.2 U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total Not applicable 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 Yes 7 25.0 0 0.0 17.1 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 No 13 46.4 7 53.8 48.8 Not tested 3 10.7 6 46.2 22.0 Not known 3 10.7 0 0.0 7.3 QUESTION 4.13 HAVE MTE CORROSION PROBLEMS BEEN NOTED? Not applicable 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 % % % U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total Yes 1 3.6 2 15.4 7.3 QUESTION 4.17 HAS FATIGUE OF MTE OR OTHER COMPONENTS OF STAY No 20 71.4 8 61.5 68.3 CABLES BEEN OBSERVED? Not known 5 17.9 3 23.1 19.5 % % % Not applicable 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 Yes 1 3.6 2 15.4 7.3 No 25 89.3 10 76.9 85.4 Not known 0 0.0 1 7.7 2.4 Not applicable 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4

OCR for page 72
74 QUESTION 4.18 QUESTION 4.22 DO THE CABLES HAVE VISCOUS DAMPERS INSTALLED HAS CRACKING OR MISALIGNMENT OF THE GUIDE AT DECK OR TOWER LEVELS? PIPES BEEN NOTED? % % % % % % U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total Yes--from the Yes--cracking 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 beginning 4 14.3 0 0.0 9.8 Yes--misalignment 4 14.3 0 0.0 9.8 Yes--retrofitted to correct vibrations 2 7.1 3 23.1 12.2 Yes--both 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 No 21 75.0 10 76.9 75.6 No 17 60.7 2 15.4 46.3 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 Not known 3 10.7 0 0.0 7.3 Not applicable 2 7.1 11 84.6 31.7 QUESTION 4.19 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 DO THE CABLES HAVE CROSS CABLES INSTALLED BETWEEN THEM? QUESTION 4.23 % % % IF THERE IS PROTECTIVE TAPE WRAPPED AROUND THE U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total CABLE SHEATHING, HAVE THERE BEEN REPORTS OF Yes--from the DETERIORATION OF THE TAPE? beginning 6 21.4 2 15.4 19.5 % % % Yes--retrofitted to U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total correct vibrations 3 10.7 1 7.7 9.8 Yes--minor damage 5 17.9 1 7.7 14.6 No 18 64.3 10 76.9 68.3 Yes--moderate No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 damage 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 Yes--extensive damage 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 QUESTION 4.20 DO CABLES HAVE OTHER DAMPERS (OTHER THAN No 9 32.1 2 15.4 26.8 VISCOUS OR NEOPRENE RINGS) TO CONTROL Not known 0 0.0 1 7.7 2.4 VIBRATIONS? Not applicable 11 39.3 9 69.2 48.8 % % % No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total Yes--tuned mass dampers 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 QUESTION 4.24 HAVE ANY PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH NEOPRENE Yes--other dampers 3 10.7 3 23.1 14.6 BOOTS BEEN NOTED? No 24 85.7 10 76.9 82.9 % % % Not known 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 Yes 4 14.3 1 7.7 12.2 No 19 67.9 6 46.2 61.0 QUESTION 4.21 Not known 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 HAS CRACKING OF THE CABLE SHEATHING OR SHEATHING CONNECTIONS BEEN NOTED? Not applicable 1 3.6 3 23.1 9.8 % % % Other 2 7.1 0 0.0 4.9 U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total No answer 1 3.6 3 23.1 9.8 Yes--sheathing 3 10.7 0 0.0 7.3 Yes--connections 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 Yes--both 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 No 17 60.7 5 38.5 53.7 Not known 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 Not applicable 4 14.3 8 61.5 29.3 No answer 2 7.1 0 0.0 4.9

OCR for page 72
75 QUESTION 4.25 QUESTION 4.29 TYPES OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTS THAT ANY OF THE CAN THE STRANDS OR CABLES BE CABLES ON THIS BRIDGE HAVE BEEN SUBJECTED TO? REPLACED IF NEEDED? % % % % % % U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total Magnetic 1 3.6 1 7.7 4.9 Yes 22 78.6 8 61.5 73.2 X-ray 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 No 1 3.6 2 15.4 7.3 Ultrasonic 1 3.6 1 7.7 4.9 Not known 4 14.3 3 23.1 17.1 Vibration-based No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 force measurements 9 32.1 3 23.1 29.3 QUESTION 4.30 Other 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 DO YOU HAVE AN INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE Not performed 13 46.4 10 76.9 56.1 MANUAL FOR THIS BRIDGE? Not known 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 % % % No answer 2 7.1 0 0.0 4.9 U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total Yes 20 71.4 1 7.7 51.2 QUESTION 4.26 No 6 21.4 12 92.3 43.9 TYPES OF SENSOR-BASED LONG-TERM MONITORING PERFORMED ON THE CABLES? Not known 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 No answer 2 7.1 0 0.0 4.9 % % % U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total Acoustic wire break QUESTION 5 detection 3 10.7 1 7.7 9.8 BASED ON YOUR EXPERIENCE AND IN GENERAL, DO YOU BELIEVE THAT THE CURRENT INSPECTION, Vibration monitoring 2 7.1 1 7.7 7.3 TESTING, MONITORING, AND REPAIR METHODS Force measurements 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 AVAILABLE TO YOU FOR STAY CABLES ARE EFFECTIVE AND ADEQUATE? Other 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 Not performed 21 75.0 11 84.6 78.0 % % % U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total Not known 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 Yes 11 39.3 12 92.3 56.1 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 No 8 28.6 0 0.0 19.5 Not known 9 32.1 1 7.7 24.4 QUESTION 4.27 HAVE THE CABLES ON THIS BRIDGE (OR ANY OF THEIR COMPONENTS) BEEN REPAIRED? QUESTION 10 DO YOU BELIEVE THAT AN UP-TO-DATE RESOURCE % % % SUCH AS A NATIONAL DATABASE OF INFORMATION U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total ON STAY CABLE INSPECTION METHODS, REPAIRS, Yes 8 28.6 4 30.8 29.3 AND TESTING WOULD BE A USEFUL TOOL? No 19 67.9 9 69.2 68.3 % % % Not known 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 Yes 25 89.3 12 92.3 90.2 No 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 QUESTION 4.28 Not known 3 10.7 0 0.0 7.3 HAS THE SHEATHING BEEN PARTIALLY REMOVED ON ANY OF THE CABLES TO EXAMINE CONDITION OF GROUT (IF APPLICABLE) AND/OR THE MTE? % % % U.S. U.S. Canada Canada Total Yes 3 10.7 0 0.0 7.3 No 20 71.4 5 38.5 61.0 Not known 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4 Not applicable 3 10.7 8 61.5 26.8 No answer 1 3.6 0 0.0 2.4