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BIOTECHNOLOGY: ITS POTENTIAL IMPACT ON INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND SOCIETY Lawrence Busch and William B. Lacy The last several years have witnessed the beginning of a major change in world agriculture. For the first time in history, patents or patentlike protection have been accorded to plants and even microorganisms. The large agrochemical and pharmaceutical firms have bought many of the worId's largest seed companies and have begun to integrate them into their larger plans. Computer tech- nologies and robots have begun to enter into the agri- cultural sector, changing significantly the ways in which agriculture is managed. Finally, the new biotechnologies have opened new vistas in agriculture, making possible for the first time the engineering of improved plants and animals and promising to make the food processing indus- tries more efficient than ever before. Together, these as yet unrealized technical changes are likely to dwarf the so-called Green Revolution of the 1970s. In the United States, farmers and the general public tend to view the new biotechnologies favorably. A recent article in American Vegetable Grower is indicative: "The promises of the new developments for agriculture have been widely publicized. For example, the potential and eco- nomic impact of new varieties of crops requiring little or no input of costly fertilizer is obvious. Similarly, the development of varieties with better resistance to disease and insects would benefit the production of many crops" (Boyer, 1984, p. 51~. Unfortunately, our review of the 75

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literature~and interviews with scientists suggest that the author's enthusiasm is at best likely to be short-lived. In this paper we review these changes with specific emphasis on biotechnology. Of concern here is how the new biotechnologies, and the social and scientific changes that they engender, are likely to be used by powerful interests to change what we eat. In the past, agriculture has been different from manufacturing, in part because of its need for land and its dependence upon seasonal changes. Lenin noted that "agriculture possesses certain features which cannot possibly be removed (if we leave aside the extremely problematical possibility of producing albumen and foods by artificial processes)" (Lenin, 1938, p. 85~. Yet, it appears that just such a possibility is upon the horizon. Is it possible that biotechnology will create a world of superabundant food? Is hunger to be finally eliminated as a part of the human condition? Or are there other forces that will shape the biotechnology revolution to other ends? SAVING THE METAPHOR Plant biology has, until recently, rarely descended below the level of the plant organ or part. This was in part a result of lower levels of funding, but was also due to the greater difficulties of working with plant cells and the strong applied character of the plant sciences! Conventional plant breeding--what we may refer to as the old biotechnologies--has proceeded with some help from Mendelian genletics, but with a heavy and necessary dose of empiricism. It has five basic steps: (1) the dis- covery or creation of genetically stable variation for the desired traits; (2) selection of individuals best express- ing those traits; (3) incorporation of the traits into a desirable agronomic background; (4) testing over a wide range of habitats and several seasons; and (5) the release of the new variety. In the last decade, however, it has become possible to apply techniques developed for molecular biology to plant improvement. These techniques can be divided into two . For a more detailed review of both conventional and new techniques of plant improvement, see Hansen et al. (1986~. 76

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broad classes: culturing and genetic transfer. Culturing involves the regeneration of plants from protoplasts (plant cells with the cell wall removed), single cells, or plant parts. These culturing techniques have three advantages over conventional approaches: (1) One can grow an enormous number of different cells, each a potential plant, in a small area. (2) The process of sexual reproduction can be more easily bypassed, thereby allowing access to genetic material that is inaccessible through the propagation of gametes and eliminating the delay necessary for multigenerational change. (3) The mass screening of plant material can be accomplished in a very short time; for example, a harmful substance can be added to the culture so that only resistant cells grow. There is a problem with these techniques, however: What is expressed at the level of the single cell may not be expressed at the level of the whole plant. In addition, only those traits for which a cellular analog exists can be selected with these techniques; important traits such as root strength, resistance to lodging, and other whole plant characteristics are not amenable to these selection procedures. In contrast to culture techniques, genetic transfer techniques operate at the single cell, subcellular, or molecular levels. Transfer may be either general or specific. General transfer involves fusion of protoplasts or transfer of specific organelles. Specific transfer depends upon the recombinant DNA technologies. A speci- fic piece of genetic information is transferred and expressed in the host. For example, the genetic material conferring herbicide tolerance has been transferred and expressed in a crop plant. This permits spraying for weeds without damaging the crop. Widespread use of this technique offers precision and control that is simply unavailable through culture techniques. In principle, breeders could transfer just the genes that they desire. The major limitation on recombinant techniques is the lack of information on the location and function of the genes of higher plants. Moreover, the most agronomically interesting techniques are multigenic; it is not yet clear just how these traits are expressed. Most of these difficulties went unrecognized by early proponents of plant molecular biology. They often per- ceived plants as the same as microorganisms. As Chaleff 77

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explains: "With recognition of the similarities between cultured plant cells and microorganisms came the expectation that all the extraordinary feats of genetic experimentation accomplished with microbes would soon be realized with plants. But because of the many ways in which cultured plant cells are unlike microbes, these expectations thus far have not been well-fulfilled" (Chaleff, 1983, p. 679; see also Schaeffer and Sharpe, 1983~. In short, early proponents of plant molecular biology took their own metaphor literally. That is, they believed that the metaphorical equivalence (plant = microorganism) was actually the case. Despite this confusion, plant molecular biology has been a growth industry. Large sums of money have been invested by various public authorities, by large petro- chemical and pharmaceutical firms, and, especially in the United States where laws are particularly favorable, by many small venture capital firms. Moreover, since the venture capital firms could survive only by attract- ing large sums of capital, they soon became the greatest defenders of the metaphor. The hype found in their prospectuses succeeded not only in attracting capital, but also convinced many in the public sector of the validity of the metaphor. . _ _ ,, Although no major breakthroughs have occurred, great progress has been made in developing plants tolerant to glyphosate (a major herbicide). This is of enormous commercial potential to the companies involved. On the other hand, many of the venture capital firms have gone bankrupt, while others have been bought by the petro- chemical or pharmaceutical giants. Only a handful have been able to generate some salable product and thereby also generate additional capital. Our story does not end here, however. Although whole plants are much more complicated than microorganisms and pose many problems for molecular biologists, the metaphor might yet be saved if the focus of research were to change. Instead of centering on the improvement of plants in the field, plant cells could be treated as if they were microorganisms. The techniques of growth and fermentation of bacteria, already well known to certain segments of the food processing industry (especially cheese and bread . 78

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making and alcohol production), combined with the newer techniques of cell culture could be used to transform the production of certain agricultural commodities into indus- trial processes. In principle, any commodity that is consumed in an undifferentiated or highly processed form could be produced in this manner. Similarly, though with greater difficulty, tissue culture techniques could be used to produce edible plant parts In vitro. In short, agricul- tural production in the field would be supplanted by cell and tissue culture factories. Lenin's (1938) dream of the complete elimination of agriculture and its replacement with continuous process factory production would at last be fulfilled! Of course, the transformation we have just described is not likely to take place within the next year or even the next decade. Indeed, it is difficult to say which research trajectories will be developed and which will be abandoned. Undoubtedly, the ways in which markets for food products and processes are organized, the regulatory requirements imposed on the industry, and the scope of patent laws will play a major role in determining just how and how much the food system is reorganized. However, the scientific foundations for change are now being laid. Consider the following: Markets for certain tropical commodities have already been restructured. Sugar, once an extremely important tropical commodity, has already been hard hit by the development of corn sweeteners and sugar substi- tutes such as aspartame (Nutrasweet). It is unlikely that the sugar market will recover from its current state of overproduction and depression. It has been estimated that the livelihood of ~ million to 10 million people in the Third World has been threatened as a result (van den Doe! and Junne, 1986~. A similar change has occurred with respect to the production of cooking oils; corn oil has become a major ingredient in prepared foods in developed countries. In addition, food processing techniques have been modified to make it possible to substitute oils in processing if desirable because of relative market prices. Thus, it is 79

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now common in the United States to see notes on bread packages indicating that one or more different oils may be used in the manufacturing process. In economic terms, the cross-elasticities of cooking oils have increased. One of the first crops to be affected by tissue cul- ture research was of] palm. The multinational Unilever Corporation, owner of large of! palm plantations in Malaysia and elsewhere, realized in the 1960s the poten- tial for tissue culture of oil palm (Iames, 1984~. Unlike many other tropical commodities, there had been little work to improve of! palm; at the same time, there was great genetic variation among trees. The actual research was conducted in Britain in greenhouses. Palm oil production was increased 30% by using tissue culture techniques to clone high-yielding trees. As of 1984, 12,000 improved trees had been planted. In addition, "more uniform, shorter trees facilitate mechanization of harvesting, reducing labor costs" (van den Doel and Junne, 1986, p. All. Given that approximately 30 million trees must be replanted annually, there is likely to be a steady market for the clones. Moreover, since palm oil producers now compete with producers of other oils such as coconut, soy, olive, and cottonseed oils, the increased production of palm oil has had the effect of reducing demand for these other oils. American soybean producers are painfully aware of this. Similarly, in the Philippines where fully 25% of the population is at least partially dependent upon coconut production for their livelihood, of! production and export has dropped precipitously in recent years (Bijman et al., 1986~. Although estimates of labor displacment in that country are virtually unobtainable, it is clear that it has been extensive. Furthermore, as more countries adopt the higher yielding palm clones, it is likely that the price will be depressed to near or below production costs. Still another area of important scientific advance is the production of what food technologists call fabricated 2In contrast, little work has been done to improve coconut oil production, in part because the 60 million persons worldwide involved in this industry are largely smallholders (Bijman et al., 1986~. 80

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foods. Such foods (often developed from soybeans) "differ from conventional foods in that their basic components-- proteins, fats, and carbohydrates--may be derived from many sources and combined, along with the necessary micro-nutrients, flavors, and colors, to form an attractive product" (Stanley, 1986, p. 65~. The consumer may not even be able to identify the origin of these foods. Work is currently under way to produce the flavor components of expensive fragrances, spices, and flavoring agents through tissue culture (see Table I). As Collin and Watts (1983) stated: Many of the compounds are obtained from plants that are not grown under large-scale or controlled cultivation. This instability, combined with cli- matic, harvesting, transport difficulties, and possible political problems in the country of origin, often leads to considerable fluctuations in the price of the compound. With each of these compounds there is interest in a more stable and easily controlled source (Collie and Watts, 1983, pp. 731-732~. As one proponent put it, "The research and development effort required is well worth the effort to achieve the In vitro production of not only specialty biochemicals, but potentially, food, spices, and industrial commodities" (Staba, 1985, p. 203~. Wheat (1986) reported that a number of major corporations and biotechnology companies are currently using this approach to create products such as fruit-based flavors, mint oil, quinine, and saffron. In addition, work is apparently in progress to produce coffee, cocoa, rubber, and tea In vitro (Clairmonte and Cavanagh, 1986; Heinstein, 1985; Staba, 1985; Tsai and Kinsella, 1981~. Citrus pulp vesicles have also been produced In vitro, thereby presenting the possibility that fresh orange juice could be produced daily (Rogoff and Rawlins, 1987~. These flavor components would be identical biochemically to the compounds naturally found in these products; hence, they would not be artificial in the sense now understood but would be true equivalents. Also important is the factory production of pharma- ceuticals and industrial chemicals using tissue culture techniques (e.g., Anderson et al., 1985; Breuling et al., 1985; Dixon, 1984; Misawa, 1985; Rosevear and Lambe, 1985; 81

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TABLE 1 Markets for Selected Plant Productsa Wholesale Estimated World Plant or Price,Demand, millions Compound Use/Product U.S.$/kgof U.S. $ Vinblastine Medication for 5,000 18-20b leukemia Jasmine Flavor; 5,000 0.5b fragrance Catharanthus Vincristine 5,000 18 20b Lithospermum Shikonin 4,500 c Digitalis Medication for 3,000 20-55b heart disorders Rose Otto Rose oil 2,800 12 Ajmalicine Medication for 1,500 5.25 circulatory problems Papaver Codeine 650 50b Pyrethrins Insecticide 300 20b Buchu Buchu of! 220 153 Cinnamon Flavor 195 3 2 Quinine Medication for 100 5-10b malaria; flavor Ginger Flavor 100 33 Spearmint Flavor; 30 85-90 fragrance Sapota Chicle c c Cinchona Quinine c 20-55b Coffee Beverage 12 2,210 Cocoa Beverage; 4 891 flavor Tea Beverage 2 2,917 Rubber Tires and 1 3,565 other products aFrom Collin and Watts, 1983; Curtin, 1983; FAO, 1985; bKenney et al., 1984. U.S. market only. CNot known. ~2

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Yamada, 1984; Yamada and Fujita, 1983). Many of these are secondary metabolites of plants, which are extremely expensive--often selling for more than $2,000 per kilo- gram. They are used in various processes to produce dyes, astringents, pharmaceuticals (more than 25% of the pre- scriptions filled in the United States are for drugs derived from plants [Balandrin et al., 19851), and other rare but essential industrial or consumer goods. Balandrin and colleagues link In vitro production with political instabilities: As the natural habitats for wild plants dis- appear and environmental and political in- stabilities make it difficult to acquire plant derived chemicals, it may become necessary to develop alternative sources for important plant products. There has been considerable interest in plant cell culture as a potential alternative to traditional agriculture for the industrial production of secondary plant metabolites. This has given rise to consid- erable research in Japan, West Germany, and Canada (Balandrin et al., 1985, p. 1158~. Misawa (1985) makes a similar case, while noting the similarity between tissue culture and microbial fermentations. He also observed that such In vitro techniques permit production "in any place or season" (Misawa, 1985, p. 60~. According to him, four types of products are of interest: alkaloids and steroids for pharmaceuticals, terpenoids as antitumor compounds, and quinones as drugs against heart disease. Systems as large as 20,000 liters--large by scientific, but still small by industrial, standards--have been built (Fowler, 1984~. Production costs are still too high for the use of these techniques with foodstuffs. This interest has given rise to tissue culture-based manufacturing plants in both West Germany and Japan. Balandrin et al. (1985) estimated that such processes are economical when cultures produce one gram of the desired compound per liter of culture and the selling price is between $500 and $1,000 per kilogram. Among the advan- tages for culture techniques are standard growth condi- tions, less complex organization than the entire plant, and ease of purifying the desired product (Anderson et al., 1985~. Moreover, the heterogeneity of cultured plant cells 83

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makes possible the selection and multiplication of those with the highest yield. Culture techniques also offer the potential to create entirely new products either through the collection of newly discovered, naturally occurring compounds or through the manipulation of cells to make them produce entirely new compounds. Consider the claim made by Yamada and Fujita (1983) for a dye/astringent currently being produced in Japan: Compared with shikon requiring 2-3 years for harvest of the plant, cultured cells permit harvesting within about three weeks, thereby greatly shortening the production period. The content of the shikonin derivatives in the cultured cells was about 14%, which was extreme- ly high compared with 1-29/0 in the normal field grown shikon (Yamada and Fujita, 1983, p. 726~. Shikonin is now selling for more than $4,000 per kilogram. One ironic note is that the In vitro production may actually drive the price down too rapidly, given the fact that the market is small and easy to saturate (Curtin, 1983~. There are persistent, but unconfirmed rumors within the genetic engineering community that at least one U.S. company has mounted a program to produce tomato pulp In vitro. This technique would be used to produce an array of canned tomato products, including sauce, paste, catsup, and puree. Similarly, there are rumors that a French company has already produced apple sauce In vitro and is now attempting to scale up the process for industrial production. As noted above, the final stage of biotechnology involves the replacement of agricultural processes with industrial processes. Here, too, much initial work has been accomplished. Cotton fibers have been grown directly from cotton cells. Unlike those produced in the field, test tube fibers can grow from both ends. Although it is ~Shikonin is the chemical product derived from the shikon plant. 84

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unlikely that field production will be replaced id, the near future, the potential is there (Anonymous, 1986~. Similarly, the Japan Salt and Tobacco Public Corporation and Plant Science Limited of the United Kingdom are both investigating the in vitro production of tobacco biomass ,, %, _ , for cigarettes (Curtin, 1983~. Thus far, the processes have proved too expensive for commercial use. Perhaps the most far-reaching proposal to replace agriculture is that found in a paper by Rogoff and Rawlins (1987~. They propose a system in which most fields are planted with perennial crops grown for biomass. These crops would be harvested as needed and turned into sugar by using enzymes at the point of harvest. The sugar solution is then piped to production plants in metropolitan areas. Finally, food is produced through massively scaled-up tissue cultures by using sugar solution as a medium and nutrient source for the plant material. As they put it, "In this strategy, edible products are synthesized from separately manufactured food components, plant (and animal) parts, or biological derivatives manufactured in vitro" (Rogoff and Rawlins, 1987, p. 801~. Under this system, processing would be a year-round activity in which only that actually needed would be produced on a given day. Canning and freezing would be largely eliminated as would most spoilage, since food would be produced and consumed in the same general vicinity. In fact, the same production facility could be shifted from the production of one commodity to another in response to changing demand. Rogoff and Rawlins argue that such a system would have other added benefits in terms of reduced need of mono- cropping, lowered soil erosion, less use of agrichemicals, reduced energy inputs, and minimal transportation costs. They go on to note that the work necessary to realize this 4Wittwer (1985) has noted that pyretur~n--tne nature' . . ~, . ~ , insecticidal component of some plants--can, as a result of plant improvement using the methods of tissue culture, now be grown more cheaply in the field than by synthesis in the laboratory. This should give us cause to withhold any simplistic generalizations about the role of tissue cul- ture in replacing crops in the field. 85

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to growth of either pathogenic or spoilage bacteria, or if it interferes with another nutrient" (Ronk, 1986, pp. 30-31~. Food products that incorporate genetic material from exotic sources, or entirely eliminate toxic substances, especially food products produced In vitro, would reduce the diverse range of ingredients in our food supply and perhaps eliminate many of them. Yet, it is highly ques- tionable whether we have the necessary knowledge to construct artificially a large portion of our food supply. Would such a food supply be adequate, not only in the short run but also in the very long run? What effects might it have after several generations? Unfortunately, the present state of science fails in its attempts to answer these questions. Indeed, it appears that they are very difficult if not impossible to raise. Consider the following: There is a sharp break between the food and nutrition area and that of agricultural production (see Randolph and Sachs, 1981~. This gap extends from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, where food and nutrition are in one board and agriculture in another, to the structure of most universities, where colleges of agriculture are often separate from schools of nutrition. Both the agricultural and nutrition sciences tend toward reductionism. That is, they tend to assume that the world can be subdivided into a series of discrete problems that can be resolved serially. Without a doubt, for some problems this type of approach can and does work quite well. However, for other problems, such as those raised here, reductionist strategies fail to grasp the problem. ~ Even now the testing of new food products and food additives is a complex and arduous task with which few governments are able to cope adequately. The production of food and drug products with the aid of the new biotech- nologies will undoubtedly put acided stress on a system that is at best a weak one. Will these products be considered the same as food produced in the traditional ways and thus escape government testing? Or will they be considered new and require elaborate test methods? (They are likely to be 96

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considered new for the purpose of patenting). If they are to be tested, how stringent should these tests be? Indeed, can tests be devised for potential problems that are chronic rather than acute? In both nutrition and food science, emphasis is not placed on the development of informed policies. In nutrition, the focus is the clinical diagnosis of problems; in food science, it is the development of new food products and processes. Members of both sciences often studiously avoid food policy questions on the grounds that they lie outside their domains. Yet, de facto, the very products that they develop create a food policy. And who has the expertise in these areas if not those in the scientific community? An additional problem is the need to protect our food from contamination. Even today, for all food produced in the field, there are occasional documented cases of contamination of food products, either by accident, by a misguided or deranged individual, or even for political reasons. However, the production of food or food ingre- dients In vitro creates much greater security problems. Contamination of large quantities of food--for whatever reason--is easier when there is In vitro production, simply because so much food is produced In so small an area. Moreover, protection of such production facilities would be difficult and would necessitate undemocratic institutional forms. Given that some observers have encouraged In vitro production as a remedy for political turmoil, this problem presents both ironies and contradictions. CONCLUSIONS There is a certain irony in that the technological optimism described above is associated with social pessi- mism. As noted, however, even technological optimism must be examined carefully. Despite impressions to the contrary, this is an extremely difficult task. The only source of information about future directions in biotech- nological research is the scientific community itself. That community is strongly biased in the direction of technological optimism. Some years ago, for example, scientists were infatuated with the prospect of modifying plant materials through irradiation, and a little later 97

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we were told that the sea would provide the abundant food supply needed for future generations. Neither of these predictions have come to pass. Current forecasts for In vitro production pay little attention to the intricate and expensive basic scientific research that must still be conducted in order to modify even the simplest plant characteristics (e.g., studies to unravel the plant nutrition process and the relationship of some plant parts to the development of flavor in the edible parts), the complex developmental research necessary to arrive at production prototypes, the difficulties of scale-up (e.g., Senior, 1986), and the economics of large-scale production (Goldstein, 1983~. These are likely to be formidable barriers. However, even though the prognostications provided by scientists may be biased, we can ignore them only at our peril. The possibility exists that a radical restructuring of what we now call agriculture cn~lr1 he O ~ ~ . . ~ . , . . ~ . . . trlggereo by powert~ul Interests using these technologies. We must examine the likely consequences now and ask whether we wish to pursue this path. Yet at the same time, we must remain skeptics. On the other hand, the new biotechnologies offer us an opportunity to assess new technology before it actually exists. This is particularly desirable in that it per- mits--at least in principle--the avoidance of deleterious effects of proposed technical change through the reorgani- zat~on of markets and the creation of governmental and intergovernmental policies to direct that change. Much still needs to be done, however. A more careful review and monitoring of the scientific literature are essential. In addition, more detailed forecasts of the impact of particular technical changes are needed. . Nevertheless, we can make some fairly strong statements about impacts if we accept the optimistic position that some scientists provide to us. First, we can expect a major transformation of agriculture over the next quarter century. Specifically, we can expect the not-so-gradual breakdown of spatial. temporal and climatic harriers to food and fiber production. ,, substantial social upheavals as the location of production changes. In addition, we can expect the elimination of major portions of the farming enterprise if field crops are grown In vitro. This in turn will displace farmers , , ~ . - , ~ This alone will brine with it 98

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and farmworkers on a scale never before possible. More- over, most of these tens or perhaps hundreds of millions of persons will not be able to find work in other sectors of the world economy. Thus, the demise of agriculture would deprive many of the very means of subsistence. Another aspect of the new biotechnologies is the enormous concentration of economic and therefore political power that it is likely to make possible. Linkages between the chemical, pharmaceutical, seed, and food industries have aIreacly been formed. Concentrated production would also bring with it the possibility of deliberate or accidental contamination of the food supply; in a wool, it would actually reduce our food security. We need not believe that the new biotechnologies must inevitably lead us in certain directions and that things could not possibly be otherwise. We have both options and responsibilities. Let us consider some of them. Although we have spent millions to develop research capacity in the new biotechnologies, we have not supported research on their broader consequences. Yet it appears not unreasonable to ask that scientists assess the potential impact of their work on a project-by-project basis (e.g., Friediand and Kappel, 1979) and that significant sums of money be made available to form interdisciplinary teams to assess the broader social, economic, political, nutri- tional, food safety, environmental, legal, ethical, and technical issues surrounding the new biotechnologies. Partly because of the search for greater value added, and consumer fascination with the new, we are adding complexity to the food production and processing system. In so doing we are exposing the population to new and unknown risks. A more reasonable approach proposed by Knorr and CIancy (1984) is one that asserts the need for minimal rather than maximal processing. That same argument could easily be extended to the entire food and agricultural system. By creating ever more complex depen- dencies among agriculture and industry, we undermine rather than reinforce our long-term food security both in the United States and throughout the world. We also have a responsibility to those who will succeed us in the future. Indeed, this is perhaps the most 99

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important issue of all. We all share a desire to leave our progeny a world that is better than the one in which we currently live. This is a noble goal, but it can only be fulfilled by treading lightly and by attempting to see how small increments fit into the larger picture. Our food system is too important to all of us and our progeny to make major changes in it without the broad, democratic participation of all. It also appears to be appropriate to remember that the annual worldwide budget for biotechnological research does not equal what the nations of the world spend in a week on what is euphemistically called national security. Sad to say, the current definition of national security does not include people's right to food (cf. Busch and Lacy, 1984~. If it did, the future would look much brighter indeed. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The material in this paper is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities under grant No. RII-8217306 and the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. We thank Glenn Collins, James Christenson, William H. Friedland, Joan Gussow, David Hildebrande, Richard Merritt, and Louis Swanson for their comments on a previous draft of this paper. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommen- dations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, or the reviewers. REFERENCES Anderson, L.A., I.D. Phillipson, and M.F. Roberts. 1985. Biosynthesis of secondary products by cell cultures of higher plants. Pp. I-36 in Plant Cell Culture. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology Series, Vol. 31. Springer-Verlag, New York. Anonymous. 1986. Cotton fibers grown directly from cells. BOSTID Developments 6~1~:12. Board on Science and Tech- nology for International Development, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 100

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