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2) Eash, Ronald. 1999. "Destination and Mode Choice Models for Nonmotorized Travel," Transportation Research Record 1674. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, pp. 18. This article describes the techniques used to modify the Chicago Area Transportation model, so it could evaluate pedestrian and bicycle travel. Smaller analysis zones were created, and various demographic and transportation system factors that affect nonmotorized travel behavior were incorporated into the model. This article should be useful to planners and modelers who might want to incorporate nonmotorized travel into a conventional traffic model. 3) Landis, Bruce. 1996. "Bicycle System Performance Measure." ITE Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2 (February), pp. 1826. This article describes relatively easy-to-use techniques for estimating potential bicycle travel demand (the Latent Demand Score) and evaluating roadway conditions for cycling in a particular area (the Interaction Hazard Score). These approaches are similar to other models used by traffic engineers that require demographic, geographic, and road condition information. 4) Schwartz, W.L., C.D. Porter, G.C. Payne, J.H. Suhrbier, P.C. Moe, and W.L. Wilkinson III. 1999. Guidebook on Methods to Estimate Non-Motorized Travel: Overview of Methods. Turner-Fairbanks Highway Research Center. FHWA-RD-98-166. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. This guidebook describes and compares various techniques that can be used to forecast non- motorized travel demand and to evaluate and prioritize non-motorized projects. It provides an overview of each method, including pros and cons, ease of use, data requirements, sensitivity to design factors, typical applications, and whether it is widely used. REFERENCES Agran, Phillis F., Diane G. Winn, Craig L. Anderson, Cecile Tran, and Celeste P. Del Valle. 1996. "The Role of the Physical and Traffic Environment in Child Pedestrian Injuries." Pediatrics, Vol. 98, No. 6, pp. 1096-1104. American Association of State Highway and Transportation (AASHTO). 2001. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation (AASHTO). 1999. Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 3rd Edition. Washington, DC: AASHTO. Available at http://www.aashto.org. Appleyard, Donald, Sue M. Gerson, and Mark Lintell. 1981. Livable Streets. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Davis, J. 1987. Bicycle Safety Evaluation. Chattanooga, TN: Auburn University, City of Chattanooga, and Chattanooga-Hamilton County Regional Planning Commission. 163

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Epperson, Bruce. 1994. "Evaluating Suitability of Roadways for Bicycle Use: Toward a Cycling Level-of-Service Standard." Transportation Research Record 1438. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, pp. 916. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 1998. Highway Statistics, 1997. Office of Highway Information Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and Institute of Traffic Engineers (ITE). 2004. Issue Brief 9. Available at http://www.ite.org/library/IntersectionSafety/Pedestrians.pdf. Forkenbrock, David J., and Glen E. Weisbrod. 2001. Guidebook for Assessing the Social and Economic Effects of Transportation Projects. NCHRP Report 456. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Also available at http://trb.org/trb/publications/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_456-a.pdf. Forkenbrock, David J., and Norman S. J. Foster. 1997. "Accident Cost Saving and Highway Attributes." Transportation, Vol. 24, No. 1 (February), pp. 79100. Harkey, David L., Donald W. Reinfurt, and Alex Sorton. 1998. The Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept. Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-RD-98-095. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Milazzo, Joseph S. II, Nagui M. Rouphail, Joseph E. Hummer, and D. Patrick Allen. 1999. "Quality of Service for Interrupted-Flow Pedestrian Facilities in the Highway Capacity Manual 2000," Transportation Research Record 1678. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, pp. 2531. Miller, T., J. Viner, S. Rossman, N. Pindus, W. Gellert, J. Douglas, A. Dillingham, and G. Blomquist. 1991. The Cost of Highway Crashes. Report prepared by the Urban Institute for the Federal Highway Administration. FHWA-RD-91-055. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. National Center for Health Statistics. 2003. Deaths: Final Data for 2001. National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 52, No. 3. Washington, DC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Safety Council (NSC). 2003. "Pedestrian Safety." Fact Sheet Library. Available at http://www.nsc.org/library/facts/pedstrns.htm. National Highway Institute. 1996. Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Accommodation; Participants Handbook. National Highway Institute Course No. 38061. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Ohland, Gloria, Trinh Nguyen, and James Corless. 2000. Dangerous by Design: Pedestrian Safety in California. Washington, DC: The Surface Transportation Policy Project (STPP). Rintoul, Donald. 1995. Social Cost of Transverse Barrier Effects. Planning Services Branch. Victoria, B.C.: British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Highways. Roberts, I., R. Norton, R. Jackson, R. Dunn, and I. Hassall. 1995. "Effect of Environmental Factors on Risk of Child Pedestrians by Motor Vehicles: A Case-Control Study." British Medical Journal, Vol. 310, No. 6974, pp. 91-95. 164

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Wellar, Barry. 1998. Walking Security Index; Final Report. Ottawa, Ont.: University of Ottawa Department of Geography. 165