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Tension between locations that are of significant value yet geographically dispersed--i.e., home, work, and school. Kitamura et al. (1997) identified four fundamental elements that influence urban travel patterns. Two of these elements, time budget and activity pattern, involve the individual traveler. The other two elements, land use and transportation, relate to the urban system. These four elements interact within a framework of space and time. Miller (2001, p. 2) attempted to synthesize time geography, activity theory, and GIS into something he called "people-oriented GIS." Method 12 builds on Miller's approach by synthesizing several global positioning system (GPS) space-time activity studies. SELECTING AN APPROPRIATE METHOD OF ANALYSIS Each chapter of this guidebook includes a table that summarizes considerations you can apply to select an appropriate method of analysis. You can use the table as a concise list of the methods discussed in each chapter to identify specific methods to read about in more detail. Each method discussion provides further information to help you understand appropriate uses. Table 2-1 summarizes the protected population identification methods presented in this chapter. We present 12 methods below, which generally pertain to identifying the areas in the community where protected populations currently reside and where they may live in coming years. The last three methods apply to analyzing the activity space within which these populations typically move about. These methods vary in complexity--how complex an analysis of activity space you should undertake may be based on the following considerations: Spatial nature of likely impacts. If a proposed project is expected to affect a sizable portion of the community, it would be important to assess the extent to which the impacts would be experienced in areas where protected populations frequently carry out their activities. Perceived complexity of potential impacts. If the potential impacts of the proposed project are likely to be substantial or complex in nature, it is essential to understand how these impacts would be distributed among protected populations as opposed to other groups. Perceived importance of potential impacts. If members of a protected population viewed a particular type of effect as particularly significant, it would be wise to use a relatively powerful method to assess how greatly this effect would impact the common activity space of that population. As these considerations make clear, a basic knowledge of the protected population and its activity space will be necessary before a method can be selected. To determine which method to use, you should have a general idea of the potential problem and the area's population and characteristics. 22

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Table 2-1. Summary of methods for identifying protected populations Assessment Appropriate Use Data Expertise Method level uses when needs required 1. Local know- All Recommended Initial evaluation of Low Local area/ ledge and in all situations potential for distributive community public input effects and to assure involvement quality of findings of other methods 2. Threshold Screening/ Regional plans, Demographic patterns Low GIS, Census analysis detailed STIP/TIP, sys- must be evaluated for data tem assessment large areas 3. Spatial Screening/ Corridor/ Demographic patterns Medium GIS, Census interpolation detailed project must be evaluated for data small areas or population patterns must be evaluated for finite areas of effect 4. Field survey Detailed Corridor/ Detailed residence, Low/ GPS & photo project business, and public space medium interpretation location information is can be useful required 5. Customer Detailed All System users could Medium/ Survey design survey experience distributive high effects 6. Population Detailed Regional plans/ Scenario modeling or High GIS, Census surfaces corridor/ integration with grid- data project based modeling packages is required 7. Historic data Detailed All Past projects or Medium/ GIS, Census review investment plans are at high data issue, or when population trends are needed 8. Population Detailed Regional plans, Planning horizon is five High Census data, projection STIP/TIP years or more statistical modeling 9. Environmen- Screening/ All Combined analysis of Medium/ Census data, tal justice detailed multiple demographic high GIS index factors is needed 10. Personal Screening/ Regional plans/ Analysis of a relatively Low/ Interview interviews detailed corridor/ well-defined impact area medium techniques project 11. Abbreviated Detailed Corridor/ Analysis of movement Medium Sampling, diary project along a corridor is needed surveys 12. Space-time Detailed Corridor/ Analysis of movement High Sampling, activity project along a corridor is needed surveys, GIS, analyses GPS 23