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There are generally three types of culturally valued aspects of an environment: Historic properties that include objects, buildings, sites, structures, and districts where some historically significant event occurred, are associated with important people, are architecturally distinctive, or have produce important information concerning history. Anthropological sites, including cultural use of the biophysical environment (e.g., burial grounds). Intangible sociocultural attributes such as social institutions, religious practices, and other cultural institutions. Unlike most of the other aspects of environmental justice addressed in this guidebook, impacts of many types of transportation projects on cultural resources cannot be measured quantitatively. Rather, the value and sensitivity of most cultural resources can be deduced only through contact with the affected populations. To facilitate assessment of project effects on various types of cultural resources, we have included methods in this chapter that are as intuitive, practical, and as useful as possible. STATE OF THE PRACTICE Many cultural resources are identified and protected as a result of either grassroots community efforts or through surveys mandated by federal law or executive order (including Section 106 of the NHPA) as projects are developed. Either path can result in a building, structure, district, object, or site being surveyed for inclusion in the NRHP (administered by the National Park Service). Most surveys include a study of the nature and scope of historical significance for each resource. However, as described above, there are differing perceptions of how cultural resources should be identified, with implications reaching far beyond the identification of old buildings and archeological artifacts. A broader and more inclusive definition of cultural resources is being suggested in an effort to include concepts like cultural use of the environment, social cohesion and institutions, and religious activities. It is with this new definition and the connection between cultural resources and social impacts that we are addressing environmental justice. Today, the practice of cultural resource identification and management involves a diverse group of fields and individuals. Some of the major contributors to the field include the following: Archeologists Sociologists Ethnographers Arts organizations City/regional/state/tribal Historic preservationists governments Collaboration with some or all of these contributors will produce the most thorough survey and comprehensive results. 294