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Step 3 Determine impacts of project on identified resources. The disturbance of cultural resources can have an influence far beyond the physical. To be appropriately comprehensive, impacts can be categorized into one of three areas: Environmental changes in the physical structure or environment; Economic loss, movement, or change in the economy of the population; and Social loss or adverse alteration in the social capital of a community. METHODS Table 13-1 provides a summary of the methods presented in this chapter. Table 13-1. Summary of methods for analyzing cultural resources Assessment Appropriate Use Data Expertise Method level uses when needs required 1. Multilevel Screening Project Initial assessment or when Low Survey and impact a project has several interview valuation alternative locations 2. Site visit Screening/ Project Area of effect is small or Medium Interview and survey detailed for confidential or with a sensitive sites community leader 3. Stakeholder Detailed Project/corridor/ For large complex projects, Medium Group and expert system when relationships must be process and charrette rebuilt, or when ongoing facilitation dialogue is required Method 1. Multilevel impact valuations This approach is intended to produce a summary perspective of how a transportation project would affect the cultural resources of an area. It takes into account the fact that changes in cultural resources can have social, economic, and environmental consequences. When to use. If a project has several alternative locations, this method will provide the quantitative data for comparison purposes. This method is recommended as an initial assessment technique for most projects where cultural-resource effects may be anticipated. For many projects, this method will yield sufficient results to characterize effects to cultural resources that are important to protected populations. Analysis. Categorization of the impacts (both immediate and projected) fall into three areas: economic, environmental, and social. For each of these areas, a questionnaire is used to obtain input from local cultural resource experts, community representatives, and community members. 298

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Data needs, assumptions, and limitations. Social, economic, and environmental data needed for this approach are presented below as interview questions. This method, as an interview technique, requires you to survey a representative cross section of individuals that represent the views of the population in general and protected populations in particular. Many of the local knowledge, public input, and survey techniques presented in Chapter 2 are useful in understanding the protected population groups that should be interviewed within the study area. Social data. Social impacts related to changes in cultural resources that would result from a project have the potential to be the most difficult to measure. The key is to increase the understanding of the contributions of cultural resources to a community and the role they play within it. The answers to the questions in Table 13-2, organized by categories of social capital, will provide information about the use and importance of the resources to the norms and networks within the survey area. These questions are only guides and can be tailored to meet the function of each resource. A brief site visit to the resource to interview patrons and employees will help you locate appropriate interview subjects. Most questions merely require either a yes or no answer; others ask the respondent to make a mark on a map. Economic data. These data largely pertain to changes in the number of visitors to culturally significant sites and facilities. They are derived from interviews with persons who are very familiar with the resources that would be affected. Among the performance measures that might be gathered are the following: Total operating dollars Ticket revenue generated Number of employees and salary paid Number of volunteers Capital assets Volunteer hours Total annual budgets Visitor spending (direct and indirect) Number and types of events held Audience demographic profile Attendance (paid and free) Environmental data. Data on most adverse effects can be determined by a brief site survey. The demolition of a structure is not the only effect of concern. Following are some basic considerations that can shed light on how and to what extent the cultural resource would be enhanced or damaged in an environmental sense if a potential transportation project were to move forward: Nature and extent of destruction or alteration of resource; Destruction or alteration of access to the site; Introduction of intrusive elements (e.g., visual, audible, or atmospheric); Transfer, lease, or sale of property; Potential for neglect or deterioration; Duration of any disruption or damage; and Likelihood of unexpected discoveries or impacts. 299

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Table 13-2. Interview questions for evaluating social cultural resource effects Travel data 1) What is your travel route when you visit this resource? (marks on map) 2) What is your most common mode of transportation when visiting this resource? 3) Where do you live? (marks on map) Social trust 1) Have you had contact with this resource in the last 12 months? 2) Has this resource impacted social activity in your neighborhood? 3) Has the impact been positive? 4) Do you feel safe when you have contact with this resource? 5) Do you feel safe traveling to and from this resource? 6) Do you see this resource on a regular basis (while traveling to and from work, school, and other activities)? Multiracial trust and organizing 1) Are you aware of any diversity activities related to this resource? 2) Have you met or interacted with other cultures in connection with this resource? Diversity of friendships 1) Have you met and made friends with people you would not have otherwise met? Civic leadership and engagement 1) Have you or has anyone you know attended public meetings or activities at this location or related to this resource? Associational involvement 1) Do any groups, clubs, or associations regularly use this resource? 2) Are you part of any of these groups? 3) Do you know anyone who is part of any of these groups? Educational value 1) Do you have children in school? 2) Has this resource been a part of their curriculum? 3) Have you visited this resource as part of an education-related activity (e.g., a field trip)? Informal socializing 1) Does this resource encourage informal socializing? 2) Do groups gather to chat or "hang out" near or at this resource? 3) Is this a meeting place for people you know? Giving and volunteering 1) Have you or has anyone you know given money or time (volunteering) to this resource? Faith-based engagement 1) Have you or has anyone you know participated in religious activities related to this resource? 300

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Results and their presentation. This general method is a rather wide-ranging approach to identifying ways in which an area's cultural resources may be impacted by a proposed project. Economic impacts. Presenting the alternative project impacts in a table or spreadsheet comparison will allow you to assess how specific elements would be affected and to estimate the bottom-line economic impacts. Environmental impacts. These impacts can be presented via spatial or visual data using GIS or other mapping program output (in either two- or three-dimensional formats) combined with artists' renderings or photography as needed. Such presentations can display separately and in overlay form the physical impacts of the project. Color-coding map points based on impact type (as discussed in the data section of this method) provide clear visual evidence of impacts. Social impacts. Two types of information result from the questions shown in Table 13-2 on the elements of social capital. The first is a map with respondent residential locations and travel patterns to the resource site, and the second is survey data that can be presented in table or summary form. Assessment. This method relies on quantitative and visual data for the purpose of gaining an initial perspective of project impacts of various sorts that are related to cultural resources. This method does not attempt to produce a form of relative valuation of different impacts. Rather, the goal is to gather clear, easy-to-interpret data to help with an evaluation of trade-offs and distributive effects. Method 2. Site visit and survey with a community leader This method involves the participation of a community leader who is a recognized and respected member of a protected population. He or she must be well informed about both the cultural resource(s) in question and the social mores and values of the population being represented. When to use. When the area of potential effect is relatively small, contains only one (or very few) impacted resources, and the protected population is small and concentrated, the use of a site visit and informal surveys has merit. This method may also be advisable when dealing with confidential or sensitive Native American sites. Analysis. Collection of impact data from protected populations occasionally can be difficult. The use of a community leader can be useful in bridging gaps in comfort and communication between residents and planners. It is vital that you establish a strong working relationship with this person, a relationship based on trust and open communication. This person can facilitate introductions and broker informal discussions centered on the proposed project and potential impacts. This individual or group of individuals should have an established rapport with the protected groups. In many communities, these representatives can be found in local businesses or religious organizations. Visual data, informal interviews, and survey questions collected during the site visit can be used. 301

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Data needs, assumptions, and limitations. Advance preparation of a series of questions incorporating both your organization's own expertise regarding the project and the community leader's knowledge of the community are used during the site visit. Methods for recording answers and discussions can include audiotaping (always with prior consent of the respondent) or a more general note-taking approach. A subject who declines to be taped can still provide vital information as to community perceptions of cultural resources. Having an extra planning representative along for the express purpose of documenting conversations is valuable whenever possible. Interview subjects might include (but are not limited to) neighborhood residents, merchants and business owners, and visitors to the site at the time of the visit (e.g., shoppers and diners). A physical record of the community or site area (e.g., photographs, videotapes, or drawings) should also be collected. This process requires a great deal of trust in the community leader and a willingness to do much more listening than talking. The method of selecting interview subjects is not scientific, and it should be a collaborative effort between the analyst and the community leader. The emphasis of this method is in gathering both relevant data and anecdotal information regarding cultural resources and their value to the community. The quantitative analysis will reveal what aspects of the cultural community are most important to the respondents and qualitative data should reveal cultural values and perceived impacts within the area of potential effect. More than one site visit may be required depending on the number of protected groups and physical structures involved. Results and their presentation. Comments and responses can be organized by theme and presented either by video or as written text supported by visual data regarding the neighborhood and the resources it contains. Assessment. While this method provides a great deal of transcript information, the assessment is fairly straightforward. The themes, comments, ideas, and concerns that appear in multiple interviews are those that require the most attention. An impact that is articulated by several interview subjects (either within a small group or by those with diverse backgrounds) should be flagged as potentially adverse. Special attention should also be paid to any statements that indicate prior adverse impacts and their effect within the community. Method 3. Stakeholder and expert charrette A charrette is a meeting of people with varied perspectives and dissimilar interests. The objective is to come as close as possible to a consensus as to what cultural resources exist in the study area, their importance, and what should be done to balance the proposed project and these resources. When to use. A charrette can be used for any type of project where there is a need to derive a community consensus on an issue usually involving large a complex project with multiple alternatives. In situations where past projects have strained the relationship between agencies of change and the public, this method can be used to rebuild relationships and empower members of the community by including them in your assessment process. This method can also encourage ongoing dialogue and provide you with individuals to consult throughout the project's duration. 302

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Analysis. As mentioned earlier, impacts can be divided into three main categories: economic, environmental, and social. Convening small discussion groups under each of these categories and inviting stakeholders and experts for each of these areas will not only provide specific local knowledge and insights but also forge new collaborative bonds for future projects. Data needs, assumptions, and limitations. The data gathered with this method will be qualitative in nature and will generally consist of comments by attendees and a statement-of- findings document from each group. Groups can be either quite small (five to eight participants) or larger. Larger groups can initially be divided into smaller working groups and then brought together. One week prior to the scheduled meeting, each group member should be provided with the following: A clear map delineating the boundaries of the area under investigation; A list of the resources identified within the area; A description of the proposed transportation project; A graphic, photo, or video documentation of the site; An introduction to the category of concern; and A clear outline of why the research is being done, its goals and objectives. When defining groups, consider including the following individuals and organizations: Archeologists and anthropologists Protected community representatives Ethnographers and local historians Social service agencies representatives Indian tribe representatives County historical societies Government officials Media representatives Engineers Religious leaders Neighborhood or tenant Grassroots/community-based social representatives service organizations Comprehensive plan makers Labor unions and organizations Environmental organizations and Libraries, vocational and other schools, agencies colleges and universities Business people Legal aid providers Minority businesses/trade groups Civil rights organizations Health care providers Senior citizen's groups Results and their presentation. After a brief introduction and review of the documentation provided prior to the meeting, assigned groups form and (in a brainstorming fashion) list all answers provided to each of these questions: 1) Why are these resources important to the community? 303